Modern Russian attack helicopters
One of the key points of the current State program is the re-supply of more than 1,100 helicopters. By 2020, the domestic defense industry needs to convey to the armed forces that is the number of rotary-wing technology. We have already started to supply the troops and helicopters are seven models and modifications.
By the end of the State program of models can be increased and a half to two times. Special attention is given to the procurement of new helicopters shock machines. Until recently, the task of supporting the enemy forces and attack pinned only on the "old man" of the Mi-24 and its modifications. Now the Air Force are just three types of combat helicopters, differing characteristics, equipment and strike capabilities.
This Mi-35M (deep modernization Mi-24, also known as 24VM-Ni), Ni-28N and Ka-52. Just a few years ago it was possible to hope for the continued construction of the Ka-50, but as a result he was taken out of production in favor of a new and perfect Ka-52. Try to carefully examine the available attack helicopters, compare and evaluate their opportunities. Unfortunately, part of the technical information on the newest helicopters is not yet in the public domain, so you have to just settle for the available official data, even if it is incomplete.
The technical and flight characteristics
Considered machines vary considerably in a constructive aspect. Machinery company "Miles" performed by the classical scheme with the main and tail screws. They also have the original X-obraznymy steering screws having increased efficiency compared to conventional screws circuit. Ca-52, in turn, formed by the traditional "Kamova" diagram and has two coaxial rotors. Pros and cons of used schemes is not the first year are the subject of debate, however, the designers and the military have made their choice: they understand the disadvantages of classical and pine schemes, but for the sake of existing strengths are willing to tolerate them. In addition, some interest is the fact that the main Russian Air Force helicopters by 2020 to become the "classic" Mi-28N and Ka-52 coaxial. Thus, there is, so to speak, the balance between the circuits.
The Ka-52 is the initial batch in the regular standard equipment including defense complex - board №52 and №53 yellow board
The Mi-28N board №50 Yellow helicopter from the party, the BBC reported on an air base 344 TsBPiPLS AA October 8, 2011, Torzhok, Tver region
All three helicopters significantly different at the level of mass and size parameters. The smallest size among the machines under consideration is the Ka-52. At maximum takeoff weight to 10,400 kg it has a length of 13, 5 meters and a diameter of rotors 14, 5 m Milevskyi Mi-28 is slightly larger:. Length 17 meters, the diameter of the rotor 17, 2 m and a maximum take-off weight at 11, 7 tons. The largest of the new helicopters is the Mi-35M having a maximum takeoff weight of 11,800 kg and a length of more than 18, 5 meters. It is noteworthy that both the helicopter company "Miles" feature the same main and tail rotors, originally developed for the Mi-28N.
Interesting way things are going with the power plant helicopter. All of them, in accordance with the trend of military helicopters, equipped with two engines. This reduces the risks associated with damage to one engine and, as a consequence, increases the survivability of vehicles in combat conditions. In addition, all three helicopter turboshaft engines are equipped with a family of "Klimov" TV3-117VMA. Mi-35M is the engine of this model with a take-off power of 2200 hp each, and Mi-28N and Ka-52 equipped with the later modifications. Thus, Ni-28N motors equipped VC-2500-02 (of 2200 l. C. To takeoff), and Ka-52 equipped with motors VK-2500 with the ability to "disperse" to 2400 liters. from. It is worth noting that the power of these indicators can only be achieved over a short period of time. In flight, it is recommended to keep the power of the engines at no more than 1750-1800 horsepower. In this case, all the engines TV3-117VMA family have an emergency mode, which are able to achieve strips in 2600-2700 horsepower. However, such power indicators require further additional services.
VK-2500 (an upgraded version of the TVZ-117)
It is readily seen that the combination of weight and size and power parameters of the Ka-52 looks the most interesting. At the maximum permissible weight on the motor takeoff mode it has a power density of up to 460 liters. from. per ton of weight. At Mi-35M and Mi-28N this parameter is equal to about 370 and 375 liters. from. per ton respectively. Thus, the Kamov helicopter, having a large thrust-weight ratio, in theory, should have better performance characteristics. However, high levels of power density are obtained, primarily due to the low mass of the structure and, as a consequence, a relatively small combat load. At the same time, a number of features of the concept led to the fact that the lighter the Ka-52 is able to carry more weapons and equipment than the Mi-35H. "Kamov" company's machine has a payload of around two tonnes, while the Mi-35M, the figure is just 1,780 kg. With regard to Ni-28H, it is able to bear on the external suspension arms to 2300 kg.
Flight options for all three helicopters are quite similar, though different from each other. The maximum speed of all vehicles in the range 310-320 kilometers per hour. Wherein Mi-35M and Ka-52 can optionally be dispersed and up to 340 km / h, but this velocity in the claimed characteristics listed as the maximum allowable. More new Mi-28N and Ka-52 win over the deeply modernized Mi-24 in the dynamic and static ceiling. The first component of these machines is in the range 5-5, 5 thousand meters, the second -. Is 3600 m Static and dynamic ceiling Mi-35M less of these indicators 450-500. Meters. Mi-35M can not boast and range. Its practical range is 420 kilometers, and Ferry configuration, it is able to overcome thousands of kilometers. For Ni-28N these figures are 500 and 1100, and for Ca-52 - 520 and 1,200 km, respectively.
Please be aware that the maximum range, as well as the speed and the ceiling itself is not the most important parameter of the helicopter, but can talk about its capabilities regarding the length of time in the air. The experience of recent years armed conflict has shown that a modern combat helicopter must, first of all, to be able to make long patrol a given area, regardless of the time of day and weather conditions. It is with the help of helicopters, NATO troops were hunting on regular convoys of the enemy, or even on individual fighters.
The crew and the protection of
The concept of the use of attack helicopters involves high risks of being attacked enemy anti-aircraft fire. Because of this, all the cars in this class have a range of means to ensure the safety of the crew. All three addressed the helicopter - the Mi-35M, Mi-28N and Ka-52 - have a crew of two. According to the result of a long debate, the most profitable scheme has been recognized with two pilots: pilot and weapons operator. It has been proposed to assign all duties for one pilot, then this option the customer in the face of the Ministry of Defense acknowledged the bleak and uncomfortable. As a result, new domestic attack helicopters made double.
As in the case of the rotors, the machine firm "Kamov" helicopters is different from "Mi". The latter have a tandem cockpit schemes: pilot sitting behind and above the navigator-operator. Ka-52 commander workplace is located to the left of the axis of the machine, the operator's seat - right. All three machines weapons operators can control helicopter and pilots can use weapons. Thus because of the separation of duties and corresponding pilot equipment may not fully use the entire capacity combat helicopter. To protect the crew and vital aggregates all three helicopters have additional armor: bulletproof glass and metal panels. The protection level different parts differs. For example, armor panels cab Mi-28N is maintained caliber projectile hit to 20 millimeters.
instruments in the cockpit (left) and co-operator (right) of the Mi-28N.
In case of an emergency landing with high vertical speed Mi-35M, Mi-28N and Ka-chassis 52 have a special design, the absorbing part of the impact force against the ground. Most of the remainder is absorbed by the seating impact of special design. Moreover, Ka-52 and Mi-28N have a catapult system to save the pilots at high altitude accident.
For several decades, the main weapon of Russian attack helicopters were barreled system and rockets, and the use of "smart" munitions had a much smaller scale. The new helicopter is fully preserved all the possibilities for the use of barrel and rocket weapons. Mi-35M, Mi-28N and Ka-52 are able to bear on the pylons below the wing units rockets of various types and calibres, of C-8 (to four blocks of 20 rockets) to C-13 (four by five). In addition, Mi-35M and Ka-52 if necessary can be applied to four missiles C-24-gauge 240 mm. All three helicopters have the opportunity to use bombs of various types of caliber up to 500 kg.
In addition to the pylons for the suspension arms, all three machines have a built-gun mount. The Ka-52 and Mi-28N equipped with automatic guns 2A42 (30 millimeters), Mi-35H - GS-23 (two-barrel caliber 23 millimeters). Movable gun mount, mounted on Mi-28N and Mi-35M, helps to build weapons within significant sectors horizontally and vertically. Ca-52, in turn, such a possibility does not: it is not cannon installation in the bow portion of the fuselage, and on the starboard side, which greatly reduces the traverse sector. Both used a helicopter gun designed to destroy ground and air targets at ranges of up to two (GS-23) or four (2A42) kilometers. Pointing guns carried out by means of electric drives, guided weapons operator. It is noteworthy that the guns pointing process affected the pilots opportunities. For example, the pilot Mi-28N can operate a gun when it is not located on the longitudinal axis of the machine and is not in a horizontal position. Only with such an arrangement, the pilot can aim the cannon using the existing in his sighting equipment. In all other cases, guidance and fire carries weapons operator.
The Ka-52 board №062 yellow, March 2012
ATGM "Ataka-V" and the block NAR B-13 under the Mi-28N board №38 on exposure MAKS-2011, August 2011
Block NAR B-13 and the launcher "Sagittarius" with missiles "Igla" on board the Mi-28N №38 on exposure MAKS-2011, August 2011
The guided missile
The duties of the navigator-operator also includes work with guided weapons. Traditionally, all domestic attack helicopters have the possibility of a anti-tank missiles, and Mi-35M, Mi-28N and Ka-52 is no exception. "Miles" company considered the machine can carry up to 12-16 anti-tank guided missile "Storm" or "attack". Arsenal Ka-52 is composed of missiles "Attack" or "whirlwind". These missiles significantly different characteristics missiles and guidance systems.
The oldest complex "Sturm-In" (development of the 70s) has radio command guidance system and provides maximum range at five kilometers. Warhead 9M114 missile provides homogeneous armor penetration to 650 millimeters thick. The use of complex "Storm" semi-automatic control system led to the fact that the arms the operator after the start forced to keep the reticle on the target for some time. This fact has to some extent reduced the combat capabilities of the helicopter, as he is forced to remain motionless until the defeat of the purpose and will not be able to effectively use the tactic of the jump.
Further development of the "Sturm-In" was the complex of "Attack-In" with 9M120 missile. The characteristics of the missiles have improved the process of modernization. Thus, 9M120 able to deliver the warhead at a distance of ten kilometers and punching to 800 millimeters homogeneous armor for dynamic protection. There is evidence of the development of laser-homing missiles for the "Attack". The principle of the missile guidance commands from a helicopter similar to "Storm". This feature of the complex "Attack-In" is a cause for criticism. It should be noted that at a speed of about 500 m / s 9M120 missile reaches the target at maximum range of about 20 seconds. To reduce the risk of the helicopter during a "jump" on-board control apparatus "Attack" allows maneuvering with some limitations on the roll and pitch. Antitank missile complex "Whirlwind" with 9A4172 missile has a laser guidance and automatic control system equipment. Last independently produces target tracking and missile guidance to it. The maximum launch range missile complex "Whirlwind" is ten kilometers. With speeds in excess of 600 meters per second rocket overcomes the distance in 15-17 seconds. Thus, the enemy air defenses can simply not have time to detect and attack helicopter. In addition, automatic target tracking and missile guidance can significantly reduce the load on the pilots. This system was one of the reasons for the decline of the crew of the helicopter Ka-50 to a single person. Tandem warhead punches a meter homogeneous armor.
Despite his shock purpose, Mi-35M, Mi-28N and Ka-52 have the ability to carry guided missiles "Air-air", designed for self-defense. It missiles "Igla-V" (range of 5-6 km) and P-60 (7-8 km). Number of missiles on the suspension depends on the tactical necessity and helicopter models. So, Mi-35M has only two missiles "Igla-V", and the Mi-28N and Ka-52 - up to four "Eagle" or R-60.
The first prototype of the Ka-52 board №061 yellow on the helicopter operation testing with the Navy ships, the Northern Fleet, of 03.09.2011
Mi-28N board №36 yellow, probably with an updated nadvtulochnoy radar. April 1-2, 2012
As a deep modernization of the old Mi-24, Mi-35M helicopter received relatively few major innovations in the composition of avionics affecting these or other features of appearance. One of them is the installation of a new sighting and navigation complex PNK-24, created by using the developments of the project PrNK-28 helicopter Mi-28N. Been updated optoelectronic station, observation devices and cabin equipment. As a result of the combat potential of the helicopter significantly increased. It is sometimes argued that the currently on-board equipment of Mi-35M helicopter delivers the highest possible specifications, which allows for a rather old design. The basis of the avionics of the Mi-28N is a complex PrNK-28, which provides implementation of flight and combat work. This complex integrated weapon control system and navigation equipment. Furthermore, PrNK-28 is associated with radar H-025. Its antenna is placed in a typical spherical cowl over the hub. Using radar significantly extends the capabilities of the helicopter, for example, allows you to fly and carry out attacks in any weather and at any time of the day. H radar 025 has two basic modes of operation: by air and ground targets. In the case of ground radar tracking "examines" sector width of 120 degrees at a distance of 32 kilometers. In this mode of operation capable of H-025 is approximately map the underlying surface. Detection and tracking of targets, depending on their EPR occurs at distances of 12-15 kilometers (tank). Larger objects, such as bridges, station notices to 23-25 km. In operation, the air antenna station scans all the surrounding space in the sector width of 60 degrees in the vertical plane. Aircraft in this case "seen" at a distance of 15 kilometers. Anti-aircraft missiles and ammunition "air-air" - with five or six kilometers. Thus, pilots have a timely opportunity to learn about the attack and do all the necessary steps.
helicopter airborne equipment Complex Ka-52 to some extent similar to the use of Mi-28N, but has some differences. For example, designed to Ka-52 radar RN01 "Crossbow" was originally built for a two-module circuit. The antenna of the first block of the radar set planned by radio waves nose cone, the second - on the rotor hub. At the moment, all or almost all new serial helicopters equipped with nose radar unit, and about nadvtulochnogo no accurate data. Such original division of the radar system has been proposed for improving the characteristics of the complex: bow antenna can always operate only at ground targets, and nadvtulochnaya - only air. Thus, the helicopter is able to react to various threats while gathering information about the situation in the air and on the ground. Also in the Ka-52 helicopter equipment includes optoelectronic station GOES-520, designed for day and night surveillance of the terrain and target acquisition. Optoelectronic station located at the bottom of the fuselage, just behind the nose cone.
The Ka-52 board №94 yellow, summer 2011
Mi-28N board №16 blue class of 2010 with a full set of on-board staff of the complex defense of 17.01.2011
As you can see, all modern Russian attack helicopters both similar and different from each other. The similarity is due to the general views of the military on the face of modern rotorcraft, and the differences caused by differing views of designers of different companies. However, all new helicopters - first of all it concerns the Ka-52 and Mi-28N - have more similarities than differences. So they can carry unguided and guided weapons, as well as to carry out attacks from a distance of up to ten kilometers (ATGM "Ataka" and "Storm"). Another feature is the presence of helicopter integrated radar. If the issue with nadvtulochnym module radar "Crossbow" will be resolved in favor of the installation, by the similarity of the Mi-28N and Ka-52 added another item.
Strictly speaking, the Ka-52 and Mi-28N helicopters being modern, also claim to be fighting vehicles of the near future. Judging from the current development trends of the attack helicopters, with timely upgrades they are quite capable of becoming so. But Mi-35M is already causing some doubts. Primarily affects the great age of the original Mi-24, as well as poorly-established idea of flying infantry fighting vehicles. In order to remove from the Mi-35M cargo-passenger cabin, which is often the subject of criticism, will have to redo the entire machine, which clearly does not fit into the idea of upgrading old equipment. Therefore, Mi-35M project now looks like an attempt to provide the armed forces with modern technology without spending a lot of time for its creation and launch of production. Accordingly, the Mi-35M is unlikely to be purchased large batches and serve as a kind of temporary measure in anticipation of a large number of new Mi-28N and Ka-52. In justification of the Mi-35M is to say that this helicopter is not as bad as it seems at first glance. The absence of radar and the presence of "extra" cabin does not allow him to compete on equal terms with other modern domestic and foreign attack helicopters, however, and in the configuration of the Mi-35M has a larger capacity compared to the existing fleet of Mi-24 of various modifications. In other words, the Mi-35M is currently more of a "transitional link" between the old and new appliances, than a full-fledged martial means to do, they say, for centuries. This may explain the technical differences of the helicopter from the other new cars, and relatively small plans to purchase.
In the coming years, domestic Air Force will receive about fifty helicopters Mi-35M. Thus far in the Air Force already serves a number Mi-28N, and the total number of ordered Ka-half 52 approaches the hundreds. Perhaps the military's views on the necessary number of helicopters of a type perfectly illustrate the prospects for military vehicles and their compliance with the requirements. It is clear that the Ministry of Defense, planning future of military aviation, the highest priority is attached to the new Ka-52 and Mi-28N, instead of upgrading "old man" of the Mi-24. That these helicopters have become the main striking force of tactical aviation to the beginning of the twenties and remain in service for years to come. So protracted work on the radar "Crossbow" for the Ka-52 or some problems with the improvement of technologies and weapons for the new technology are elapsed time: the new helicopters are made for the future and is now better to lose a bit of time than to have a good modern technology.