Key invention in the automotive world
Using familiar conversation automotive terms - the internal combustion engine, "automatic", air conditioning, disc brakes, the ESP - we do not even think about the history of their origin. We have decided to restore justice and to remember when and on what cars were innovations that we use every day.
Cars with internal combustion engines
Nikolaus Otto, built in 1878, the first four-stroke internal combustion engine, certainly gave great impetus automotive. But equally important was the invention by Karl Benz in 1885, a car with an internal combustion engine.
However, this fact is hardly conclusive: many scientists and engineers from different countries came to the self-propelled carriage with an internal combustion engine, almost simultaneously. For example, Austrian Siegfried Marcus in 1883 and the German Gottlieb Daimler in 1886. However, a major innovator is assumed Benz. Incidentally, the first single-cylinder internal combustion engine of his "Motorvagena" developed less than one horsepower.
The first serial car with a diesel engine was the Mercedes-Benz 260D in 1936. Turbodiesel came almost 40 years later: in 1979 "pioneer" was the Peugeot 604.
Headlights, starter and ignition
Where: Cadillac Model 30 Self Starter
All these quite familiar to modern car attributes appeared more than a century ago, in 1912, at one and the same vehicle - Cadillac Model 30 Self Starter ( "self-starting"). And standing lamp has a robust tungsten in its headlights.
With this car drivers forget about the acetylene carbide and of inefficient lamps with carbon filament and "crooked starter" used to start the engine earlier. In addition, it is believed that it is the starter "killed" nascent at that time the market of electric vehicles - because until then operate the vehicle with the engine was not so easy.
Where: Renault Voiturette
December 24, 1898, Louis Renault took the challenge to drive his Voiturette up the steep Rue Lepic Paris street that in Montmartre. Thanks to the gearbox he did it - and he immediately received the first 12 orders for his "wagon".
In 1899, Louis and his brothers founded the Renault Freres company that arranged the production Voiturette Type A model equipped with a sufficiently powerful for those times (1, 75 horsepower) engine "De Dion-Bouton" and first transmission in the world (three forward, one back). The scheme of direct transfer to the propeller shaft is still used in the rear-wheel drive cars.
The most common in our time, front-wheel drive come up with the Americans in 1929, embodied the idea on Cord L29 car. But the truly mass-produced front-wheel drive only began in the second half of the last century
Where: Oldsmobile Custom 8Cruiser
Not surprisingly, the "machine" invented lazy Americans living in the country straight as an arrow, highways.
The first lucky ones in 1939 became buyers model Oldsmobile Custom 8Cruiser, serially equipped with a four-HydraMatic transmission with hydraulic clutch.
Drum brakes, independent suspension, monocoque
Who: Lancia Lambda
As is the case with the starter and lights, all these innovations have appeared on the same machine, and at the same time - it was a Lancia Lambda.
On the "lambda" was first used by a bearing body for the first time applied the drum brakes on all wheels (for rear wheel drive cars), as well as independent front suspension. Total has sold about 13,000 copies of the Lancia Lambda.
wheel-drive vehicles with internal combustion engine - 60 Hp Spyker - has appeared much earlier, in 1903. Incidentally, with all three locking differentials.
Who: Chrysler Crown Imperial
In the first quarter of the XX century, the twist "zero" only helps the biceps - no amplifiers were not provided. Later, in the 30s, there complex and noisy pneumatic system, which facilitate the participation of the drivers, but did not provide much comfort.
It was only in 1951, the corporation Chrysler has fitted to its huge fashionable sedan Chrysler Crown Imperial the world's first hydraulic Hydraguide. In Europe GUR first appeared in the French model Citroen DS 19 in 1954.
Where: Citroen DS 19
The same Citroen DS 19, but four years later, in 1958, he became a "pioneer" in another area: car with disc brakes.
In this way, the list of innovations DS 19 does not end there: he had front-wheel drive, excellent aerodynamics (Cx = 0, 3), hydropneumatic suspension and all-wheel steering with a single needle. Not surprisingly, the first day of sales of Citroen has received 12 000 applications for the new model.
Where: Buick Roadmaster
Perhaps if all current drivers knew that we had to go through to motorists from the beginning of the XX century, to finally reach our usual electrical "turn signals" that they would use them more often.
At first, there were special lanterns, then mechanical pointers as arrows indicating the direction of movement, and only in 1925, Edgar Waltz patented the modern "blinker". But appear on production cars he was destined to only 14 years later - after the patent expires. The first car with turn signals became Buick Roadmaster 1939.
When: 1903/1917/1926 years
Women's contribution to the history of automotive safety - "wipers". In winter 1903 the American Mary Anderson, watching the torment his driver in heavy snow (he always had to rush out of the car and wipe the glass), broke down and came up with a mechanical drive, which is patented. In 1917, the "wipers" Power has patented another woman - Charlotte Bridzhvud. A few years of its invention had been lying on the shelf until 1926 was not appropriated firm Bosch. That same year, the electrical "brush" appeared simultaneously on a vast number of cars of different brands.
Three-point safety belts
Where: Volvo PV 544
Of course, who else, if not "Volvo"? The Swedish company almost since its inception has paid great attention to the safety of their vehicles, improving the body structure and safety systems, and carrying a large number of crash tests.
Despite the fact that the belts used by mankind in various fields since the end of last century, it was owned by Volvo same mechanism, which is now saving the lives of many people in the accident - three-point safety belt. For the first time the device has appeared on the car Volvo PV 544. Prior to that, there were unpretentious two-point belts, however, match the effectiveness of a Swedish invention, they could not.
Where: Packard Twelve Sedan
Nowadays, even budget cars flaunt climatic systems. However, the world's first car with the air conditioning was introduced only in 1939 at the Auto Show in Chicago. It was a Packard 12.
The cost of the options is 274 dollars: at the time - over a third of the price of the new full-size car! To turn on the air conditioner driver had to stop the engine and manually install the belt on the pulley of the compressor. In addition to the units located under the hood yourself "refrigerator" took up half the trunk and coped with its task very efficiently.
The first audio system in cars began to appear in the 30s of the last century. In the US in 1930 for $ 110 began selling radios Motorola, in Germany in 1932 Studebaker cars appeared "music" Blaupunkt, a year later in the UK radio received Crossley cars.
When: 1981/1995 year
Where: Honda Accord and Vigor
"Yes, my 'Japanese girl' is already 20 years ago was" - is the most common phrase, which can be heard by any fan of right-hand drive cars. So there is - many "gadgets" and electronic systems that we use today, first appeared on Japanese cars sold in the local market. For example, a navigation system.
The first navigation devices for cars have appeared recently - about 30 years ago. Innovators steel from Japanese firms Honda, offered as an option for the models Accord and Vigor in 1981 navigation system Electro Gyrocator, which worked ... without GPS! And in general, without any relation to satellites.
To use the navigator "Honda", the driver had to take a special plastic map of the area and place the cursor at the location in the current situation, and then the built-in gyro determined the direction of movement of the vehicle and its speed and "navigation" plotted route. Complicated. And it is very expensive at that time - a quarter of the price of the same chord.
His first built-in navigation for a car with GPS appeared in the 1995 Oldsmobile 88 car.
The first semblance of the navigator - Plus Fours Routefinder - appeared in the 1920s. It was a twist of paper maps between wooden sticks that are rotated manually. Ten years later it appeared the device IterAvto, who did the same thing, but automatically, depending on the speed.
When: 1971/1972 year
Where: Ford Taunus 20M P7B and Oldsmobile Toronado
In 1967, the US inventor Allen Breed invented ball sensor for determining the collision of the car, which has become a key element of a new security system - airbags.
It was a very high demand innovation - seemingly now can not to wear! For the first time she appeared on an experimental batch of cars Ford Taunus in 1971. The first production car with airbags year later became Coupe Oldsmobile Toronado. But the wide distribution of "pillows" were only in the middle 80s. And yes - to wear it is still necessary.
Where: Mercedes-Benz S 600
Bosch has since the beginning of the 90s trying to get ready to correct the mistakes of the driver electronics. Work on the creation of the stabilization system (or ESP stability system) led to the fact that in 1995, ESP was first introduced on a production car, which was the most luxurious sedan from Stuttgart - Mercedes-Benz S 600 in a monumental body W140.
Now Bosch is the largest supplier of sensors and control electronics system stabilization, which, depending on the brand may have different names: DSC (BMW), ESP (Mercedes-Benz), VSC (Toyota) and so Further. But its essence remains the same: to help the driver to correct the error and prevent the development of a skid or drift car. In addition, current systems are able to deal with the threat of a coup on high machines - such as off-road.
Where: Jensen Interceptor FF
The first attempts to introduce anti-lock braking systems on vehicles have been made in the 50's, when it is already actively used by both the railways and aviation. But the first car with ABS appeared only in 1966 - it was a British all-wheel drive coupe Jensen FF, which cost crazy money and eventually sold around the world laughable edition of 320 pieces.
In the late 60's - early 70's got ABS American coupe Ford Thunderbird, Lincoln Continental, Oldsmobile Toronado, Chrysler Imperial, Cadillac Eldorado and the Japanese "chlenovoz" Nissan President. In Europe, electronic ABS from Bosch simultaneously used BMW and Mercedes-Benz in 1976 on their flagship models - the 7-series and S-class. It is the ABS sensors and actuators, it uses for its operation, the system stabilization.
Also the first
In the history of the automotive industry were not only individual inventions - some cars themselves represent a great innovation.
Who: Ányos Jedlik
The first mass-produced electric considered to be the Mitsubishi i-MiEV, which entered the market in 2009 (and sold in Russia in 2011). A little earlier, the market entered doroguschy sports car Tesla Roadster, but in fact, even before there were electric cars with a combustion engine - in 1828 by Hungarian physicist Anoshem Istvan Ányos Jedlik was invented electric pallet truck with four wheels.
At the end of the XIX century for experiments on electric, many European and American engineers were seen, scientists and inventors. In 1899, the first Russian electric built Hippolyte Romanov. Petersburg inventor of four models of electric vehicles have been designed: double and quadruple strollers, as well as the 17-seater and 24-seater omnibuses. Double cab and a 17-seater omnibus built on his project in 1899.
In the same in 1899 built the Belgian Camille Zhenattsi car La Jamais Contente clocked faster than 100 kilometers per hour on land (109, 4 kilometers per hour). In this same "series" electric vehicles launched a US-based Detroit Electric, which released its electric cars from 1907 to the beginning of the Great Depression in 1929. In 1910 they reached a circulation of 2,000 copies. In 1910, William Anderson, who founded Detroit Electric on the basis of Anderson Carriage Co., established in the new electric steel-nickel batteries Edison, which allowed travel 100 miles (160 kilometers) on a single charge, which doubled the mileage on standard lead-acid batteries.
It looked like charging electric vehicle early in the century
Standard hybrid cars are made not so long ago: in 1997, when on the conveyor rose Toyota Prius the first generation. Formally gibridomobil first appeared back in 1901 - it was a four-wheel drive Lohner-Porsche.
Two petrol internal combustion engine connected with a pair of generators, which generate electricity for the electric motor in each of the four wheels. Excess energy is stored in batteries. In addition, by changing the polarity of the electric generators, they can be used as starters for petrol engines.
The hydrogen engine of
Who: De Rivaz
The first working example of the internal combustion engine, hydrogen was developed Swiss de Rivaz in 1806 year for the same name vehicle. A serial car on hydrogen appeared in France in 1863 and it was called Hippomobile.
However, the emergence of the serial "vodorodomobilya" had to wait almost 150 years: it was the "seven" BMW last generation with a V12 engine, which developed the entire hydrogen-228 power and 337 Nm of torque. Although, of course, "a series of" it can be called a very arbitrary: it was raised several hundred machines, mainly for PR-purposes.