• Hard water
Total reserves of ice - solid water - on the Earth about 30 million cubic meters. km. Meaning ice planet enormous, since 98.8% of the fresh water stored in glaciers or groundwater.
Talk about hard water and look at pictures of Iceland ice.
The ice - water in the solid state. water and ice structure very similar to each other.
In the normal atmospheric pressure (760 mm Hg. V. And 1 atm), the water passes into the solid state at a temperature of 0 ° C. Interestingly, when the pressure ice melting temperature slowly increases and the boiling temperature of water - drops. Thus, when a pressure of about 0.006 atm boiling point and melting coincide - 0.01 ° C.
The ice is found in nature in the form of actual ice (mainland floating, underground) and also in the form of snow, and so on. D.
Under the influence of its own weight of ice acquires plastic properties and fluidity. Some Himalayan glaciers are moving at a speed of 2-3 meters per day.
Water - the only available naturally occurring substance on Earth, which has a density in the liquid state than in the solid. Therefore, the ice floats on water.
Berg (German: "Ice Mountain".) - it is a large piece of ice in the ocean or sea. As a rule, the icebergs are breaking away from ice shelves. About 90% of the floating iceberg is under water.
On Earth, about 96.5% of water falls on the oceans, 1.7% of world reserves make up ground water, yet 1.7% of the glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland. But most of the Earth's water - salty, so it is not suitable for drinking and agriculture. Ratio Fresh is only 2.5%, with 98.8% of the water stored in glaciers and groundwater.
The most significant glaciers are located on the islands of the Arctic Ocean - Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, the northern part of Novaya Zemlya.
The total reserves of ice on the Earth about 30 million cubic meters. km. Basic ice reserves in the world are focused in the polar caps (mainly in Antarctica, where the ice layer thickness is 4 km).
If all the glaciers melted suddenly, the level of water in Earth's oceans would rise by 64 meters and about 1/8 of the land surface would be flooded with water.
By the way, the natural ice is usually much cleaner than the water.
In the sea, and the ocean water is formed when frozen sea ice. So as seawater salt, freezing oceans water occurs at about -1.8 ° C. Melting sea ice begins at temperatures above 2.3 ° C.
In the oceans under the ice it is very dark. The water reflects 5% of the sun's rays, while the snow - about 85%. thus under ice ocean it penetrates only 2% of sunlight.
The high specific heat of melting of ice, which is equal to 330 kJ / kg, an important factor in the turnover of the heat in the world. In order not to go into the physical quantities, simply note that the specific iron melting heat is 270 kJ / kg). Thus, to melt 1 kg of ice or snow, must as much heat as needed to heat a liter of water from 0 to 80 ° C.
A solid water as the material of construction is widespread in the polar regions for the construction of homes - igloo.
However, the ice making is not only a home. When the Allies were preparing to land in Europe, they are in a metal deficit seriously considered the project of building a huge fleet of aircraft carriers from the ice. "Habbakuk" - a project of the British shipbuilders to build the largest aircraft carrier of paykerita (frozen mixture of water and sawdust). It was suggested that it would be 610 meters in length, width 92 m and height 61 m and a displacement of 1.8 million tons, was able to take up 200 fighter and reconnaissance aircraft.
The ice is not only on Earth. There is evidence of the presence of ice on the planets of the solar system and in the nuclei of comets. Composed of ice surface of Europa - a moon of Jupiter.