9 unsuitable places to live, where she still has arisen
It is considered that the necessary conditions for the emergence of life is the presence of light, oxygen and water - at least, with the majority of species of living creatures on our planet is the case.
But the Earth - an amazing place, and life here sometimes there is a completely unimaginable conditions that reassuring: it is quite possible that some day we find life on other planets, where conditions are not favorable.
We hope that on this we will be able to tell you in a few years, and now we offer you a selection of the most unusual places on the planet, where he managed to survive the experience and living organisms.
1. The asphalt lake
In the Atlantic Ocean there is an island of Trinidad, it is unusual especially the fact that it is the only lake in the world, where instead of water - liquid asphalt. Locals use the lake for their needs: every year there is produced about 100 tons of asphalt, and the smaller lake does not become - the depth of the basin is also unknown. The reasons for the origin of the mysterious natural phenomenon can only be guessed.
But the most surprising - not even that. In a completely unsuitable for the conditions of life inhabit tiny bacteria extremophiles: each gram of substance lake live about 10 million animals. Note that the temperature of the asphalt - about 50 ° C, water is considered a prerequisite for life, there is almost no a negligible amount, which can still be detected, is generated directly lacustrine inhabitants. In addition, the bacteria have to live in an oxygen-free environment - instead they use for breathing metals and hydrocarbons.
2. Radioactive water
The bacteria species Deinococcus radiodurans can withstand ionizing radiation of about 10 000 Gy (people in the preparation of five Gray dies). Moreover, these bacteria prefer to live in those places where, in one way or another, there is radiation - in natural waters, containing huge amounts of radioactive substances such as radium, radon or uranium. Deinococcus radiodurans survives by constant copying its DNA: by the time the radiation destroys a gene other similar molecule is already beginning to work, and the creature continues to live. In fact, one individual can live almost forever, constantly renewing itself.
The researchers are now looking for a way beneficial use of bacteria for human needs: for bacteria, in fact, feed on radioactive waste, they can be used for bioremediation of radioactive contamination. Moreover, after the nuclear disaster bacteria, for obvious reasons, will survive, so it could very well serve as an information carrier for the remnants of humanity. Incidentally, such an experiment already conducted and was successful: in 2003, scientists have encoded song in a number of segments of DNA and introduced them to the bacterium - exactly information is transmitted through a hundred generations of bacteria, and scientists have been able to read it.
3. The bottom of the ocean
Deep under water, which could not get a single ray of light, too, is life, with the life of this is represented not only by bacteria, as in the two previous cases. At the bottom of the ocean inhabited by amoebae and strange deep sea fish - they somehow manage to survive in the incredible pressure, and an almost complete absence of oxygen. However, there is a theory that deep life is not born, but rather migrated here - some species could not compete and were forced to sink to the bottom in search of a new habitat. However, this does not explain the existence of living organisms, for example, in the Mariana Trench: it is difficult to assume that some kind of looking for a place to live would be down "on their own" to such a depth. Back in 1960, two researchers, Jacques Piccard and Don Walsh, were able to see at a depth of 10,000 meters flat, similar to flounder fish, and James Cameron in 2012, was even able to bring to the surface of the microorganisms from the "Challenger Deep". Note that at great depths was not found a single species, the age of which would be less than 200 million years, and scientists believe that since then they have not changed.
In general, the inhabitants of the deep - scavengers that feed on all organic, which falls on the depth of the "top".
4. The Dead Sea
The Dead Sea - one of the most salty reservoirs in the world: according to research, the salinity of water in it is 35%, the composition is preferably chlorides of magnesium, calcium, sodium and potassium. Unfortunately, as a result of environmental degradation, groundwater abstraction and climate change on the planet Dead Sea is gradually drying, and perhaps disappear altogether as early as this century. And with it will disappear and inhabit it live organisms that are unique in nature.
The Dead Sea halophilic microbes inhabit - the salinity of the water in any way does not prevent them to live and breed in, it would seem, it is not suitable for this environment, on the other hand, the higher the salinity, the better they grow. These microbes - very resistant organisms: in fact, they could withstand the extremely low temperatures, or to stay alive even in the vacuum of space due to its ability to osmoregulation.
5. Boiling water
reservoir, where the water temperature is close to 100 ° C, no so rare on our planet: in particular, geothermal sources exist in the Caribbean Sea at a depth of about 5000 m, and here the water temperature is close to 400 ° C - is boiling springs deep in the earth. None of terrestrial organisms in such conditions can not survive, but the bacteria, some species of mollusks and polychaetes perfectly adapted to life in the boiling water.
Worms, for example, have no mouth, no intestines, and energy for life, they are not a result of the absorption of food, but because hydrogen sulfide processing. Their bodies are protected from possible adverse effects of ultra-high temperatures chitin shells. Surprisingly, if the water for some reason or cools colony polychaete leaves the usual habitat of the area, then they cease to proliferate and die after a while. The "ideal" conditions as they live a long time - the researchers could find individuals older than 250 years.
Strictly speaking, those found in the ice organisms are not quite live - necessary for their life processes are "frozen" in the literal and figurative sense. In particular, in the ice of Antarctica discovered ancient bacteria that inhabit them directly in the ice - glaciers and icebergs: if an iceberg drifting in the ocean, then drift with it and inhabit it bacteria.
One piece of ice with such bacteria unable to deliver to the lab. After thawing the bacteria almost immediately began to move, they began to breed and find food: that they were in a state of suspended animation, perhaps around a million years did not cause them any harm. The researchers concluded that this is possible thanks to the genome of ancient organisms: it was shorter and more primitive genome of modern bacteria - they have only 210 base pairs, while other bacteria usually there are three million pairs.
7. The dry valleys of Antarctica
Living organisms, dormant in the ice - not the only mystery of Antarctica: there are dry field on the southernmost continent, also known as "Martian valleys." Dry fields can rightly be called the driest place in the world, as there was no precipitation for two Ma, the temperature does not rise above -20 ° C, and the normal wind speed - 300 km / h. Accordingly, the valleys of the soil is not covered with any ice or snow.
Until recently it was believed that to survive in such conditions is impossible: there is at least some water - no life. However, in 2009, the year of the soil samples were taken in the dry valleys, which were found living organisms - bacteria. There is a hypothesis that they were there with the last drop out of the rain areas and have adapted to live in the soil, without the need for oxygen or light and ignoring the cold, but it is not known what they eat and how the mind could hold out for such a long time.
8. The underground depths of
Humanity, driven by economic and research interests, for a long time tends to conquer the depths of the earth. Most people are trying to penetrate the almost unattainable depth of mining, for example, in the vicinity of Johannesburg has the world's deepest gold mine Mponeng, its depth - more than 3500 m temperature in the interior of the Earth, of course, is much higher than in the hospitable surfaces -. about 60 ° C. There is no light and almost no air, but is this the eighth paragraph to surprise someone? Of course, life is here.
bacteria inhabiting in the underground source is used as a life support nuclear reaction due to radioactive rays, the water molecules are split into hydrogen and oxygen, and then atomic hydrogen is recovered and isolated by this process energy is used for living bacteria. They are found mainly in a small amount of moisture in the rock crevices.
9. Poison yl
In the Mediterranean, a large part of the floor is covered with yellow and blue carbonate mud, which is saturated with hydrogen sulfide and toxic to all living things. Oxygen in such an environment is not and can not be, the light does not penetrate there. People without special equipment and protective suits are not able to dive here - even if we were able to breathe underwater, a short exposure to hydrogen sulfide would have on the body of toxic effects.
But deep in the sludge anaerobic bacteria live births Desulfobacter, Desulfobacterium and Desulfococcus. These bacteria - some of the tiny organisms in the world, the length of their bodies is on average about 150 microns. In its composition, bacterial cells are like fungal cells, and oxygen is not necessary for them to breath and energy for life, they are due to its ability to oxidize hydrogen sulfide in the body and save the grains of sulfur.