10 amazing facts about the Celts
The Celts left behind a great many stories and legends, which are shrouded in a veil of mystery, intrigue, and, unfortunately, true. There are many misconceptions and false truths about them, but we're going to clear up some.
1. The origins of
To be honest, no one really knows where they came from. Some historians claim that the Celts appeared in Britain around 1180 BC. e., to verily while others claim that it was still early. However, it is generally accepted that the Celts began migrating from Central Europe in 400 BC. e. They spread vo all directions until they were face to face with the Romans.
The problem was that their neighbor - Rome was united multinational empire and the Celts consisted of ten tribes, who fought against each other in the same chasto as they fought against the Romans. In kontse all, nekotorye of these tribes were polnostyu destroyed, some agreed to be ruled by the Romans, to verily while others were driven out to the farthest corners of the known world: Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
2. They fought bare
The mention of the Celts in the West makes people smile: "Oh, it's those guys who fought naked with gold rim on the neck (called Tork)?"
However, it is one of the biggest misconceptions about the Celts, which is absolutely ridiculous, if you think a little. Delo is known today chto all information about the Celts come from Roman sources, the Romans and the Celts were enemies. It is safe to say chto Roman historians, a bit exaggerated.
When your enemy describes you and your life, we can say with confidence that he will write about yourself only good, but their enemy or bad or anything. It is in our time can be observed when American sources claimed that during World War II only decisive battles they won and the Soviet Union led to a long war Germany on the Eastern Front. You can also see from another angle; Celts lived in a period known as the Iron Age. It was a time when iron was used instead of bronze to create weapons, armor and tools. The Celts themselves produced good weapons such as swords, axes, spears and two-handed hammers, metal plate and chain mail for use as armor. Knowing this, it is unlikely that the Celts in cold weather wore on his naked body iron chain mail.
Celtic Druids were very honored. In addition, they are normally chto wore long white robes and sacrificed people, they do very interesting things. They advised the chiefs and kings, which make laws (such as counselors or parliament these days), and they even acted as judges, implementing its own laws. Druids were considered clever and wise because they are 20 years of his life spent learning their craft. Their expertise ranged from astronomy to philosophy. Since they have a broad knowledge, they advised the people when the plant culture and even predict the future.
In addition, the Celtic Druids gave many traditions that are alive and Po today. The Druids believed the oak - a holy tree, because they believed that their gods live everywhere: in streams, rocks, trees. According to the beliefs of the Druids, the only thing more holy and magical than oak - a mistletoe that grows on oak. The Druids considered mistletoe miraculous properties, cut her golden sickle and performed purification rituals. Therefore, to this day, according to their traditions in English-speaking countries, there is a belief that if you were under the mistletoe, absolutely have to kiss.
4. Celtic women
The women among the Celts could be powerful, they have the right to own land, and even divorce, which was unheard of in the ancient world. Unlike the Roman women, Celtic could climb up the social ladder or by inheritance status, either by achieving it by his actions. If the woman was a landowner, during the war, she went to fight as a soldier on the orders of his king. Also women warriors mogli devochek train young boys and the art of war. They could even become Druids. What's really interesting about the Celts, is that the children they were considered innocent and were under the protection of the law. This is quite a contrast to the Roman world in which no one right throwing children and left to die in the trash.
5. The Celts built excellent roads
The Romans usually attributed to the fame that they were the first to build a reliable network of roads that connected all of Europe together. In the end, it is a historical fact, right? Wrong again! Contrary to popular belief, the Celts on samom actually built Pre-Roman network of roads to connect the wooden poseleny various Celtic tribes, so that they can engage in trade.
The problem with wooden roads that chto they have not survived: the majority of them have decayed because of its nature. However, some boards have been found in bolotah Ireland, England and France. Since the Romans never actually been to Ireland, we can assert uverennostyu chto these old boards were actually part of the Celtic road system. In addition, you can view more information about roads at Celtic Trail example Corley (Corlea Trackway), which is located in Ireland. Here are preserved many of the old road, which has been partially restored to give an idea of how it could look in his golden days.
6. Strange hats
Now, kogda you know that the Celts had metal armor and chain mail, it is easy to guess that they had and helmets. In fact, the Celts had a bunch of really crazy hats, Shout of kotoryh was discovered in Ciumeşti (Ciumesti), Romania (remember, the Celts were widespread throughout Europe?). There was found an old cemetery from the Iron Age 34 graves. It turns out that these graves belonged to a rich Celtic chieftain who was buried there, along with many objects, such as bronze weapons and armor (to serve him in the afterlife). Among these objects was found very strange helmet, on top of which a large bird of prey was depicted. What's really cool in this helmet is the fact that the wings of birds were also attached to the hinges. This meant that while walking man - bird flaps its wings. Historians believe that the helmet was a parade in the battle has not been used.
7. The Celts loved battle
The Celts not only traveled, they also fought, and sometimes not at all free. Celtic mercenaries in ancient times were known for their reputation of the brave and wild warriors. It is known that they are in the service of the Pharaoh Ptolemy II of, the king of Ptolemaic Egypt. Mercenaries were nastolko good that Ptolemy II was afraid that they might seize Egypt, so he dropped them on a deserted island in the middle of the Nile.
The Greeks also met in battle with the Celts, who at that time were trying to expand their territory. This war is known as the Gallic invasion of the Balkans and the Delphic battle in 279 BC. e., where the Celts were defeated. The Greek army was well organizovano srazhalos and cohesion, so that they could easily defeat the Celts fought piecemeal.
8. The Headhunters
If you had to choose some interesting fact about samy keltah, so this is probably what they are hunting for turtles. They believed that the best trophy in the battle was the severed head of an enemy. This fact can be explained by the fact that the Celts believed that the dead man's soul lived inside his head.
Collection of skulls meant a great honor and prestige of the owner, plus it gave them a reason to be proud. Celts decorate saddle their horses and their doors golovami severed his enemies.
9. The Celts were extremely rich in
Here is a little history: in 58 BC. e. Romans and Celts lived peacefully in their respective territories. However, at this time the novice politician Julius Caesar had huge debts, and he needed somewhere to get money. What did he do. He invaded peaceful Celtic territory. Gallic War is often regarded as the greatest military victory of Julius Caesar. It was the beginning of the rapid expansion of the Roman Empire. During the war, Caesar systematically beaten several Celtic chieftains, gaining control over more and more territory. This territory, which was annexed to the Roman Empire was called Gaul (modern France). This led to the fact that Caesar has earned much fame for his military successes. What is interesting, Caesar war started under the pretext of protecting some of the other Celtic tribes. As a result of such "protection" over a quarter of a million people were massacred in Gaul (Celtic). Caesar continued to "defend" the Celtic tribes, until they were eventually all destroyed.
What does this have to the wealth of the Celts? First of all, Caesar was a politician. He desperately needed the money to pay off his debts, and he needed a military conquest, to boost his political career. In Celtic Gaul were rich deposits of gold. It is known that at the time of Gaul employed over 400 gold mines. Thus, the Celts were very rich, and no wonder why Caesar wanted to get their hands on the control of these mines. Oddly enough, the Romans began to mint their own gold coins just after the conquest of Gaul.
10. The Celts were not simpletons
In addition, the Celts had a serious knowledge of mathematics and astronomy. The Romans were the Julian kalendar, but the Celts had their own calendar. It is called the calendar of Coligny. It was found in Coligny, France (hence nazvanie) in 1897. The calendar consists of a series of mysterious metal objects, decorated with intricate ornaments, lines, ports, numbers, letters and Celtic. In 1989, kalendar, was finally deciphered. It has been found that it is a lunisolar calendar that calculates the time of the year, based on the cycles of the Sun and the Moon. This is a very accurate kalendar that was peredovym for your Time interval and more accurate his peers - the Roman calendar. Perhaps more importantly that this calendar is living proof that the Celts had a mathematical and scientific knowledge. Just to show how accurate was this thing, let's compare him and the Roman calendar. Roman calendar is considered to be too precise enough for svoego time and lagged behind the real solar time only 11, 5 minutes per year. However, after centuries have passed, even a small inaccuracy increases with time. Coligny calendar was as accurate at the Rome sravneniyu that if we lived on the Roman calendar until today, the beginning of spring, we have pointed out in the middle of August, and the Celts would still be left in the spring of the spring.
Here they are - the Celts.