7 the oldest buildings in Moscow
Have you ever wondered, walking around Moscow, a house in the capital of Russia is the oldest? We decided not to suffer guesses and tell where the "old-timers" of Moscow architecture.
1. The Savior Cathedral of the Andronikov Monastery
The oldest temple in Moscow, and the oldest building in Moscow. Civic buildings made of stone while almost never built, and the old fortification - the Kremlin wall - this is the end of the XV century. According to the Chronicle, the monastery was founded in 1357. After the fire of 1368 year in which the initial burnt wood cathedral Andromkov convent was built of stone plinfy Spassky cathedral, which remained white stone fragments zoomorphic reliefs and vegetable compositions. Between 1420 and 1425 years the Savior Cathedral was rebuilt again, and it is this white stone church of that time has survived to the present day.
In the painting of the cathedral attended by Andrei Rublev and Daniel Chorny (these frescoes fragments of floral ornament on the slopes of the windows).
Faceted Chamber in the Kremlin
It was built in 1487 - 1491 by order of Ivan III Italian Marco Ruffo and Pietro Antonio Solari. The name is taken along the eastern facade, trimmed with faceted stone rustication (diamond rustication), which is so fond of Italian architects of the Renaissance.
It used to be called - the Grand Chamber, and the front was a foster peace palace. There were meetings of the Boyar Duma, the meeting of the Zemsky Sobor, the festivities in honor of the conquest of Kazan (1552), winning the Battle of Poltava (1709), the conclusions of the Treaty of Nystad with Sweden (1721). Here on the Zemsky Sobor in 1653, it was decided on the reunification of Ukraine and Russia. For the queen and king of the children in the audience chamber secret smotrilnaya tent was set up. She was in front of the throne of the king and queen with their children through the bars could look at a lavish ceremony and receptions ambassadors overseas. Today funtskioniruet well as the room in the residence of the Russian President. Interestingly, there continues to exist a secret smotritelnaya tent.
3. The English Court in Zaryadye
Chamber appeared in the XV century and belonged postelnichim Bobrischevu Ivan, also known by the nickname "Juska". Since the latter, apparently, he did not leave an heir, in the next century the building became state-owned. In 1553 Sir Richard Chancellor opened the northern sea route that connects England with Russia. Ivan the Terrible, is interested in establishing trade relations with Europe, "the British on the Moscow court granted" by providing them with free and duty-free right in all Russian cities, serious customs facilities as well as a number of other trade privileges. This was the basis for the creation in London in 1555, the Moscow trade company. As a premise for the Moscow office of British merchants was isolated house in charge. Trade relations with Britain were broken off in 1649, when the penalty in the United Kingdom King Charles I triggered a deep diplomatic crisis between Russia and England. British representatives were expelled from the country, and the property of the Moscow company - were confiscated.
Passing from hand to hand, the building has changed beyond recognition - to the middle of the XX century, the House of Old English Court in Varvarka finally lost its original appearance. In the mid-1960s, when the charge has already been demolished, the restorer Pyotr Baranovsky found Chamber of later accretions, and insisted on the preservation of monuments, as its location is already supposed to be built car ramp. On the basis of his studies in 1972. Chambers was returned (with a certain approximation of shares) shape which they had at the end of the XVI century.
4. Traveling Palace Vasily III of
Track Grand Duke of Moscow Vasily III (Ivan the Terrible's father) Palace is found in the Old Basman Street (Building 15). The find was a real scientific discovery, as was previously thought that from the former palace is nothing left. The modest-looking mansion turned out to be a monument of "two in one": as it turned out during the restoration, the building served as the basis for the construction of the Golitsyn estate. Thus, on top of it is placed Golitsyn Manor House of the XVIII century, and inside - road palace. Disposition of the palace has remained almost completely!
Historians have found that this royal hotel built in a special place. Here you can meet the famous icon of the Vladimir Mother of God in 1395, which, according to legend, saved Russia from the invasion of Tamerlane.
5. House of Golitsyn
House of Golitsyn (Krivokolenny lane, 10) - the oldest of the buildings, which currently remain residential. Three stone buildings (main building and two long side wings) with fragments of buildings of the end XVII - early XVIII centuries are urban homestead. Previously it was thought that the House of the XVII century has been preserved only on the first floor of the main house, but a few years ago, the restorers discovered that second and even third floors were also built at the same time, in the XVII century! The house is habitable, and to this day. On the side of the courtyard adjacent to the house is very beautiful garden with a hammock and tables.
6. Solodozhnya in the Simonov monastery
This building is really impressive - we see the five-story building XVI-XVII centuries! Four floors, and more high loft, which is essentially the fifth floor. According to surviving documents, the building was intended for the storage of food stocks monastery.
7. Church of the Savior on the Bor
The oldest building in Moscow in the photo. Cathedral of the Transfiguration of the Savior on Bor - monastery cathedral, located in the Moscow Kremlin, in the courtyard of the Grand Kremlin Palace. The name "Bor" is derived from the surrounding temples coniferous forests, gave the name and the most Borovitsky Hill. In 1933, it was demolished, its ancient bell arrived in the Moscow Kremlin funds.