Novosibirsk, then and now
• Novosibirsk now and then
We rarely pay attention to how the city is changing. Especially when you live in it, everything around it becomes habitual. Developing so-called "a tunnel" vision. Photo allows you to see the changes the city's architecture is much more clearly.
Novosibirsk - a young city, which has developed very rapidly and in a short time became a millionaire. But despite the fact that the city just over 100 years, the project "Novosibirsk. Then and Now, "it shows how much he has changed.
Floodplain. Kamenka overlooking the central part of the city
The basis of the Novosibirsk settlement was and is a land grab land. The reason - in the illegal settlement of land kabinetskih. Novo-Nikolaevsk and Novosibirsk has always been, in fact, the city of the capitalist, the city, counting benefits. Capture was accompanied by the emergence and growth of unusual industrial and residential "nahalovok". Their problems solved settlers literally within one day. They needed only to put the stove. And that was the basis for the gendarmes, not to demolish the building under construction is illegal. As a result of the fact that this settlement has always been a disaster created by their "laws", it has been the subject of citizens' pride. In the 1960s, after the arrival of US Vice-premier of Nixon Kamenskoe settlement was demolished, and the river is placed in an underground reservoir.
The school building - one of the 12 two-storey stone school buildings, designed and built by AD Kryachkova in 1911-1912. It was decorated with a remarkable architectural element of Russian Art Nouveau - roof-kokoshnik, which later when the superstructure of the third floor has been lost. In 1923, school converted into a secondary school.
From May 1925 to July 1930 had the status of Novosibirsk Siberian region center, and from July 1930 to September 1937 - the center of the West Siberian region. This is one of the most exciting periods of Novosibirsk architecture, when many built objects later became symbols of the city and the residents pride items. This is the time of formation of the main architectural environment and Novosibirsk image. The period is characterized by an increase in high-rise buildings of 5-7 floors, the active reconstruction of the existing stone building merchant. New social and cultural buildings formed the first square of the city, and thus created the architectural ensemble of Sverdlov Square, where 4 out of 6 buildings designed by the architect AD Kryachkova.
Building is designed by architects A. D. Kryachkova and VS Maslennikov in 1934. In 1937, at the trade fair in Paris, AD Kryachkov received the Grand Prize for achievement in architecture, in particular the 100-apartment house for employees of regional executive committee. In the early 1940s the famous architect A. Gegello, also winner of the Paris Grand Prix, in his speech at a meeting of the Novosibirsk branch of the USSR Union of Architects has criticized the architecture stokvartirnogo apartment building as alien to the proletarian spirit. Today, however, the 100-room apartment house - a real architectural pride of the city.
The hotel "Metropolitan"
This is the first brick hotel in the city. The building of the hotel "Metropolitan" was built in 1905 (architect K. Lygin) in the central part of the city, on the street Palace (st. Revolution, 4). The building stands out against the background of unusual for a city of that time houses built, as a rule, in the Siberian "brick" style. "Underground" architecture is typical for most of the central part of Russia mansions. It was in this building in 1912 there was the first in a bathroom. For those years, this was an event, and in 1917 the hotel "Metropolitan" was opened here on 14 rooms.
The building, which housed the hotel "Novonikolayevsk Compound", built by the merchant Ivan Timofeyevich Surikov. He successfully led the business in Barnaul, and then moved to Novonikolayevsk. Here he was elected to the post of the city mayor, merchant headman, he was the first "mayor" of the city. The building housed the only time a bank branch - "Siberian". After completion of the second floor is the home visitors "Novonikolayevsk Compound". After the revolution, the unions Novonikolayevsk organization of the RCP is settled (b), and then a printing house Sovnarkhoz number 1. After the liquidation of the former printing press building Novonikolayevsk farmstead occupied shopping boutiques and coffee shops.
The complex zhilkombinata "Dynamo" buildings. House NKVD. German Consulate
Residential Plant "Dynamo" (architects BA Gordeev, SP Turgenev) - monument of constructivist architecture. The design of the building took part NV Nikitin, an outstanding Soviet design engineer, author of design solutions of foundations and framework of MSU in Moscow, the famous Ostankino television tower and the metal frame of the monument Motherland on Mamaev Hill. On the composition of residential premises plant was divided into two parts: The first part included the hotel for 250 people, mechanized dining room, a shop and office of "Dynamo", the second - with 56 individual apartments without kitchens and kindergarten day stay. Later, after the war, the hotel was named "Siberia". Here he worked with the famous restaurant operated by a terrace. The ground floor housed the Pie Shop, and at the corner of the street. October - a culinary shop selling delicious cakes. Following the restructuring of the 1990s on the first floor of the building housed the German consulate.
Krasny Prospekt, 13
The building on the corner Gudimovskaya (str. Communist) and Nicholas (Red) prospectus Novonikolaevsk known as Buzolin house was built in 1908-1909. On the ground floor there is "Office and stationery store" and lithographic Kassianova, watch and jewelry shop "Trade House Itsikson" and other commercial establishments. In the early 1930s by the architect Ivan T. Voronov, this house was built on two floors and is united with him in this building, closes quarter. The result was a new building - a house "Sibstroyputi", currently located on Krasny Prospekt, 13, between the streets of the Communist and October. From the street, the Communist and today you can see a narrow window and arch, reminiscent of an old building.
In 1915, in honor of the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty in the Nicholas (now red) Avenue was built a chapel in St. Nicholas's name. Holder Construction acted charity "manger." Fundraising was performed by subscription. The basis of the project donated by the architect AD Kryachkova contractor made Kolyvan tradesman JS Durov, construction supervision led the city architect FF Ramman. November 9, 1929 The Presidium of the Novosibirsk District Executive Committee decided to close the chapel, and at the beginning of 1930 the chapel "at the request of the workers" was demolished. In its place was a monument to the working-Hammerstrike. In the late 1930s, a monument to the working-Hammerstrike replaced the monument to Stalin. In 1961, after debunking the cult of personality, the monument was dismantled. On the 100th anniversary of Novosibirsk in 1993, pushing back a little to the river, the chapel was restored. Modern chapel on the scale and proportions different from the pre-revolutionary, but it is still an architectural landmark.
Red Corner Avenue and Maxim Gorky
Quarter merchants building along the Red Avenue between Chaplygin streets (former Asinkritovskaya) and Maxim Gorky (formerly Tobizenovskaya) lasted almost until the end of the 60-ies of XX century. Before demolition here in the former homes of Zakharov and Mashtakova, housed in the famous shops Novosibirsk: sports, books and stationery store, "Tobacco". For hotel theater and ballet dancers cafe "Siberian dumplings", which is constantly going to the artistic elite of the city. The architecture of the buildings that stood in front of the merchant series, is fully consistent with the scale and the capital of Soviet ideology: Stalin's Empire style side by side with avant-garde constructivism. And here is low, small scale, "bourgeois" eclectic brick houses began to irritate ideologues. In the 1950s, merchants' houses are not demolished, and built upon. It involves the reconstruction of a quarter. On the corner, facing towards the center, was supposed to appear a classic tower with a spire, something reminiscent of the Moscow high-rise. But only in the 1960s, journalists write about the imminent demolition of the last pre-revolutionary building, replacing it with modern high-rise buildings "made of glass and concrete." So in the center of the city there was a contemporary 14-storey "skyscraper."
House of Lenin
20 years of the last century marked by extraordinary ideological propaganda spirit of the revolution. The symbol of the rebirth of the bourgeois and merchant Novonikolaevsk in the Siberian capital of the workers and peasants became Lenin House. It was in this building was approved by the new name of the city of Novosibirsk, which until 1937 remained the administrative center of the Siberian region.
Lenin house is built like an optimistic response to the tragic death of the leader of the proletariat. Interestingly raise funds for the construction of the House of Lenin, which was released on one million stamps equal in value bricks. Buying a brand, as a citizen to put a "brick" in the great construction. Construction works were completed by 1 May 1925, but as soon as a project of its reconstruction and superstructure on two floors has been made. In the summer of 1926 the construction of a new home was completed. Lenin house looked somewhat like the prototype in Moscow - the mausoleum on Red Square, the sample symbiosis Assyrian-Babylonian pyramids and avant-garde constructivism. In the Stalin era, in 1935, the building sheltered Youth Theater. Today it houses the Novosibirsk Philharmonic. In 1947, after the victory in the Great Patriotic War, the building was converted VM Teitel in classical triumphal arch in the form of a portico. But even after such changes House of Lenin was a true symbol of the revolution, the temple of the era of Leninism with its necropolis - Monument to the Heroes of the Revolution.
The trade body
In 1911, at the fairground to build a shopping building, which became the author of architecture Tomsk architect AD Kryachkov. Building is designed in the style of Art Nouveau. December 24, 1908 Novonikolayevsk received the status of a full-fledged city, which was the result of hard-fought struggle targeted the residents of the urban situation. The new building housed 16 shops, City Government, Treasury, Department of the State Bank, in the basement - storage, boiler room and an autonomous power. Pavement near the building was made of cast-iron grids with glass blocks to illuminate the cellar. The trade body has become a symbol of municipal government approval - the first town hall. Later, in the 1930s, repeatedly tried to demolish the building. In different years the shop "Orbit" placed in the shopping housing institute "Giprotorg" and the restaurant "Central". Today there museum.
Today Square. Lenin with his strict ceremonial buildings is the result of deliberate design. Few people know that the basis for the creation of the area is still the same spontaneity of Novosibirsk. In 1926, at the suggestion of the design engineer Safronova building apartment houses it was decided to move away from the red line on the avenue of 65 meters for the organization of car parking. However, the vehicles for the province while they were irrelevant, so on-site parking, first broke a small public garden. This was the beginning for the creation of a central area of Novosibirsk. The new building of the State Bank in 1931, built as indented from the red line. The result is a decent urban space. Formation of the central square of the boundaries was completed in the early 1930s, the construction of the gigantic building of the House of science and creativity, the future of the Opera House.
But even after the opening of the theater space changing area continued: reconstructed building executive committee and party schools, built up the street Ordzhonikidze and deputy. In the 1960s, in the north-west corner of the square came Vokzalnaya Magistral. Almost every decade of the last century on Lenin Square marked by some momentous buildings. Only architectural styles as many as six.
In the 30 years of the twentieth century begins the construction of the largest Novosibirsk building - Opera and Ballet Theater. The original building was designed as a House of Science and Culture in modern and functional style. Architects provided the latest theater technology, and a huge dome was designed for a new kind of theater, projecting the film on a spherical surface Since the building was intended for mass events, the project involved the building and pass through the festive demonstration. However, construction was delayed, and stylistic preferences of the country's leadership has changed dramatically. The creators of the building was accused of sabotage and architecture panned. In the mid-1930s decision to change the function of a building under construction. Democratic House of science and culture, he is transformed into an elite Opera and Ballet Theater.
For a new architectural design is announced an architectural competition, which involved as the famous Russian and local architects Novosibirsk. The winning design architect Novosibirsk BA Gordeev was sent in 1934 for further development in the second workshop of the Moscow Soviet academician Shchusev, who, incidentally, is a very negative attitude to the idea of this building. Unique was the construction of a giant, the largest at that time in the world of smooth concrete dome. With dimensions of 55 meters in diameter and 25 meters high dome shell has a thickness in the upper part of 8 cm, which was 1/750 of the diameter. Thus, there has been the highest limit of the rational use of reinforced concrete.
The building of the Opera and Ballet Theater - one of the largest in Russia and the largest in the Urals. Its opening coincided with the celebration of Victory Day, May 9, 1945. Giant building beautifully decorated and reminiscent of Roman buildings. It is not surprising that the metaphorical name of the theater "Siberian Coliseum" and "Siberian Pantheon" is fully confirmed as an imperial and iconic landmark spirit of the building. Opera and Ballet Theater Novosibirsk ever become an architectural symbol of the world and is recognized as one of the most unique buildings.
Vokzalnaya Magistral. Street Semipalatinsk (Ordjonikidze)
In 1925 it was developed conceptual design of the master plan of Novosibirsk, under the direction of I. nape. It provided for the radial-ring reconstruction of the schematic layout of the old street Novonikolaevsk network, in which the idea of diagonal roads were laid. In 60-ies Vokzalnaya Magistral, despite the controversy in professional circles, was finally "broken" by the historic building. Direct Vokzalnaya Magistral has become a new city planning decision. Now Lenin Square could visually see the entrance arch of the railway station.
The building Ngah
Initially, in 1923, the building of state institutions on the corner of ul. Semipalatinsk (now Ordzhonikidze Str.) And Red Avenue was designed by architect AD Kryachkova four story. But in the process of building it decided to leave the two-story with future add-ons. The first floor is allocated for public institutions, and the second - under the premises of the State Bank. In the years 1935-1937 two-storey building of state institutions have built and reconstructed under the Planning Institute. Decorative building design was carried out to support large-scale architectural ensemble clearance Lenin Square, it became the center of a huge building of the Opera House. For a long time, from 1937 to 1989, the building housed the Leninist party and courses grew into Higher Party School. Since 1993, this building Novosibirsk State Architecture and Art Academy trains future architects, artists and designers.
Building 1st clinic
Competition for the project was announced in 1927. The first prize was awarded to the project of Moscow architect P. Shchyokino, the second - the project AD Kryachkova. The building has a brilliantly organized plan's communications offices and laboratories - no corridors, and spacious waiting rooms. DOCOMOMO world society, a protected monument of modern architecture, recognized clinics architecture as one of the 800 best works of the avant-garde in the world.
The house on the corner of Sovetskaya and Lenin
Union office tekstilsindikata initially, in 1925, was built in the Art Nouveau style rationalist by architect AD Kryachkova in collaboration with the civil engineer RA Peterfreundom. The ground floor housed shops selling fabrics, the second - the office and business premises. In 1930, the House of textiles was handed over to the office "Sibugol". The building was extended and overbuilt on 2 floors by the engineer Lalevich in the constructivist style, so that the lower and upper parts of the building have a different architecture. Subsequently, this building housed the Institute of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of SB RAS, and on the first floor - a deli number 3 and a bread shop "Golden Ear".
Palace of Labor
The building of the Palace of Labor - a typical example of searching for a new typology and architecture in the early years of the Soviet Republic. labor palace was designed in 1923 in the style of a romantic "castle" architecture. The project involved the placement of 20 boundary departments of trade unions, clubs, Soviet officials and builders, the cinema "Proletkino" for 800 people, meeting room for 300 people, library, hotel and dining room. Tridtsatimetrovoy involves the construction of a tower to house the radio station. The tower was supposed to finish depicting the globe glass sphere. "Unfading light of October" was to symbolize placed inside the sphere light source. However, the building was built without the projected tower. In 1936 the building have built on 2 floors. Today, the building houses Novosibirsk State Academy of Water Transport.
Pharmacy on the corner of Lenin and Uritsky
The building is located on the corner of Uritsky and Lenin. After the reconstruction in the 1950s by architect Konstantin Leonov, it has increased significantly in length and was a five-story apartment house. Former building "Sibmed" has entered into the body of the new classical volume, while today is located at the corner of pharmacy. This approach was typical for the architects of 30-50-ies of XX century, when the former are not subject to demolition, and his designs have been used for active reconstruction.
Club sovtorgsluzhaschih. House of Culture of the October Revolution
The building was designed by architect IA Burlakov. In 1934 it was named after Stalin. It was the biggest club building in Novosibirsk with two halls for 600 and 200 seats. Stepped composition rounded corner entrance of the building had to express his ideological significance - the availability of the broad masses of working people. DOCOMOMO world society, a protected monument of modern architecture, recognizing him as one of the 800 best works of avant-garde architecture in the world. After the dethronement of Stalin's personality cult club was renamed the House of Culture named after the October Revolution. The people was common nickname of the club - "Cobra", according to different versions, either due to a reduction names or nicknames of Stalin's "Koba". It is with such a name - "Cobra" - now close to the club built a high-rise business center.
Aero Club on the street. Krylov
The first Siberian pilots training school for pilots, parachutists and modellers in the ranks Osoaviahima was established in 1930. Since 1933 the school was renamed the School of Pilots of the West Siberian region, and began to carry the name of the chairman of the executive committee Gryadinkogo. At the end of 1934, the school was reorganized into the Novosibirsk flying club. For the club in the same year, a new building was constructed. The club took the preparation of the famous Soviet test pilot ML Popov. In the 60 years of the twentieth century, the left wing of the building occupied by the Institute of Geodesy and Cartography. Today it houses the Novosibirsk regional branch DOSAAF.
Now few people remember that in the 40s on the right and left banks of the Ob River in Novosibirsk, had different time zones. Left Bank, developed in the 1950s as an independent city, sought to connect with the cultural right bank. It happened in November 1955, when the Community (now the October) to open the bridge.
The bridge gave a huge town-planning effect, especially for the Kirov (now and Leninsky) district. Almost immediately, in place of potato fields originated prospect of Karl Marx, which became the main street of the Left Bank.
Mosque Novonikolayevsk Mohammedan Society was built at the expense of the faithful in 1916 in the station of the Novonikolaevsk. Burlin located on the street St. Andrew and almost square mosque was clearly visible not only in the station, but also the central part of the city. In 1937, the mosque was closed, and the minaret gumbas dismantled and looted property. In later years the building housed various government agencies and organizations, the last of which was Novosibirskdorstroytrest. Along the perimeter of St. Andrew Square (now Square Kondratyuka) in the 1950s, houses were built. The building was lost inside the block. As a result of operation of the original appearance of the mosque was badly distorted. After the collapse of the USSR the mosque was again transferred to the local Muslim organization of the Novosibirsk region of the Spiritual Administration of Muslims (Omsk coupling).
Catholic church. TSUM
The building stood at the corner of Prospect Dimitrova, and the Station highway, in front of the building constructed in the future, the Central Department Store. In 1901, at the request of the Roman Catholic society Novonikolayevsk settlement funds were raised from donations for the construction of a house of worship. According to the highest permission of Emperor Nicholas II, March 6, 1903 a plot of land between the 24th and 29th districts Novonikolaevsk had been donated for the construction of the Roman Catholic house of worship. In 1905, the foundation was laid under a stone church in the name of St. Casimir and consecrated Tomsk rector Demiksisom VI in the presence of an engineer and Kossovsky congregation. Building demolished in the early 1960s.
In the 1950s the idea was embodied urban northern gate of the center of Novosibirsk. They are located at the intersection of Prospect and Red Dostoevsky and represent two five- and six-storey residential building with porticos facing north. At this point, the relief of the Red Avenue up the hill, and built a number of Soviet classical buildings create a wonderful prospect that becomes in 1960 an architectural symbol of Novosibirsk.
House of Culture named after Gorky was built in 1957. The building was a core composition of urban planning central portion Str. Bohdan Khmelnytsky. This is one of the last buildings in the city, built in the classical architecture of an order. On the pediment of the building DK Gorky sculptures were installed later cleaned during repairs. Today, it is the architectural ensemble reflects the context of the famous "Bogdashki" - social town of Novosibirsk Chemical Concentrates Plant.
In the postwar period in Novosibirsk, a number of architectural ensembles. These include the building of the northern part of the Red prospectus of Kalinin area designed by architect VA Dobrolyubova. Residential houses have issued the square in front of DC Zhdanov (now DC aircraft manufacturers), which was a monument to Stalin and Lenin. The sculptor has depicted them in friendly conversation, sitting on a garden bench.
The official date of birth is considered to be the airport Tolmachevo 17/01/1955 and 02/22/1955 at the military airport landing strip first postal jet aircraft IL-28, delivered from Moscow to Novosibirsk matrix of major newspapers. 22.11.1956 Tolmachevo first landed a jet plane Tu-104. A day passenger airport birth is July 12, 1957, when the first passenger flight number 020 was performed Novosibirsk - Moscow with a stopover in Sverdlovsk. Tu-104 delivered to the capital of 50 passengers. The aircraft commander was VM bathe. November 21, 1963 was taken into operation a new terminal building, designed by architect A. Volovik total floor area of 10 254, 4 m2 with a capacity of 1,000 passengers per hour. More than 30 years of three-storey building with a red visor was the hallmark of Siberia's main airport.
All the collected material is entered into the historical photo album "Novosibirsk. Then and now". This book, we have worked together with the architect Igor Popovskii.
Thanks to everyone who participated in the preparation of publications. Special thanks to the Museum of the city of Novosibirsk and antiquarian book stores "Siberian room".