10 original inventions that you thought were modern
All of these 10 things are integral parts of modern life. And it seems to have been invented solely due to scientific progress. But no, most of them appeared in the days when science was in its infancy.
Soap (2800 BC).
According to reports, the soap produced in ancient Sumer and Babylon (about 2800 BC. E.). soap manufacturing technology description found in Mesopotamia on clay tablets relating to approximately 2200 BC. e. Egyptian papyrus middle of the second millennium BC suggests that the Egyptians regularly consumed soap in bath. Widely used such detergents and in ancient Rome.
Buttons (2800 BC).
The oldest and buttons and things like buttons that are used as decoration and not for zastogivaniya were discovered in India in the Indus Valley. They belong to the era of Kot Diji India (pre-Harappan) Civilization (c. 2800-2600 BC. E.). Such objects Bronze Age found in China (c. 2000-1500 BC. E.), As well as in the former territory of ancient Rome and ancient Greece. Functional buttons with loops for clothes zastogivaniya first appeared in Germany in the XIII century.
crane (late 6th century BC).
Despite the fact that many aspects of it have been constructed very recently (in historical terms), the mechanism of the crane was invented by the ancient Greeks around 515 BC.
Toothpaste (IV c).
The earliest reference to toothpaste is contained in the Egyptian manuscript of IV century BC. e., its recipe was a mixture of powdered salt, pepper, mint leaves, and iris flowers.
Toilet paper (VI century).
For the first time use paper in sanitary purposes began in China. The earliest mention of it belongs to 589 AD. e. And by 1391 for the imperial court a year already delivered 720,000 sheets of toilet paper (2 * 3 feet) and 15,000 sheets of special (3 square inches.) - thick, soft and fragrant - for the Emperor's family.
Paper money (VIII century).
The oldest notes are Chinese (Tang Dynasty), dating back to the VIII century. Around the 700s AD, the inhabitants of China, finding coins heavy burden, given their preference to paper money. By the year 960 due to lack of material for coinage amount of paper money was issued which covered the needs of the whole society.
Mina (XIII century).
According to Joseph Needham and his book "Science and Civilization in China", the Chinese Song Dynasty forces used explosive mines in defensive strategy against the Mongol marauders. The first concrete example of the use of such mines, 1277 relates to a year.
Sunglasses (XIII century).
In the history of the invention of sunglasses there is a huge mess. It is connected first of all with a clear definition of the term "sunglasses". It is known that even the Roman Emperor Nero watched the gladiator fights through an emerald mirror. According to records monk Giordano de Pisa, the first sunglasses were made in Italy in 1286. This is confirmed by the records of another monk brother Alessandro della Spina Pisa. However, according to Professor Berthold Laufer, a German-American anthropologist, sunglasses, most likely, were of Indian origin.
Parachute (XV century).
It is believed that the idea of creating a parachute came Leonardo da Vinci. In his manuscript, 1495 mentions a safe descent from height by using the "tent" of starched linen 12 x 12 cubits. If we consider that the medieval measure of length - the elbow - was equal in different countries from 50 to 60 centimeters, it is true, such a device provides a safe human descent from any height, since the diameter of the modern parachutes also not exceed 6.7 meters.
Of course, Leonardo da Vinci was not the first thought of the idea of a parachute. Ancient records show that in many countries, people are trying to come down from the towers, trees, rocks through a variety of devices, similar to umbrellas. Often such jumps ended in injury or even death, because no one knew the laws of air resistance and flair often fails. Leonardo da Vinci first pointed out the most advantageous size of the parachute.
Newspaper (XVII century).
newspapers predecessors have traditionally been considered news reports that were distributed in ancient Rome about the events that occurred in the city. They were ordinary, copied by hand scrolls. The world's first printed newspaper was the "Capital Gazette," which was first published in China in the VIII century. It placed the emperor's decrees and reports of important events. With papers printed boards on which the characters were cut, coated with ink and prints made.
Birth year European newsprint periodicals considered in 1605. The first edition appeared in Strasbourg. It began with the words "Relation: Aller Fürnemmen". Its editor and publisher was the typographer Johann Carolus previously been compiling handwritten newspapers.