How does the Kiev funicular
• How does the Kiev funicular
For over 100 years the people of Kiev and guests of the capital actively use the funicular that connects the Upper Town with the hem. Unusual and unique in its own transport system allows you to quickly ascend or descend the steep Vladimir's Hill. It would seem that may be new to write about such a famous and many times discussed the object as Kiev funicular? It turned out that there is something to write.
First, as it turned out, in different sources are conflicting reports of the funicular structure reconstruction dates and so on. Secondly, where the audio is not affected by its internal structure. And finally, thirdly, there are a number of little-known but very interesting historical photos. Therefore, with your permission, let's just talk about Kiev funicular. Contrary to the tradition will first post about modern cable car and then on its history.
Kiev funicular was opened in 1905 (the second in Ukraine after Odessa). This year, this unusual transport system were executed 109 years. Perhaps the most classic view on the cable car route:
The length of the track - 222 m, slope - 18-20 °.
The journey takes one way takes about 3 minutes.
The difference in height between the upper and lower station is 75 m.
The upper part of the track is located on the funicular railway concrete viaduct:
By the way, the record for the steepness of the route is located near the Australian town of Katoomba mountain road length of 415 m (Katoomba Scenic Railway). The slope of its track is 52 °.
Kiev funicular uses pendulum (most common) operation circuit, two non-motorized carriage are rigidly connected to the rope thrown over a pulley which is disposed at the upper station. Moving one of the cars downward leads to a symmetrical displacement of the other carriage upwards, and cars are leaving the central point of the track. In this system, the engine that drives the pulley, spends energy only on the movement of the weight difference between the two different carriages filled with passengers, as well as to overcome the frictional forces.
The rope connecting carriages, between the support rails laid in a special system of straight and oblique blocks, which provide the deviation of the rope along the path:
The rope is changed every few years. Its condition is periodically monitored, and the thickness measurement is carried out a number of other parameters.
In order to sidetrack wagons used arrow Abt. Its essence is that the outer rail tracks continuous and internal gaps have to skip rope.
Each solid rails on both sides covered by the flanged wheels of cars, and each car covers its rail and depends on this side of the movement at the junction. The second half of the wagon wheels without flanges, has a large surface and just rolling on the rail head (see. Picture for greater clarity).
Each trailer has a cable car emergency brake wedge type that wraps the rails like a pair of pliers. It is automatically activated when the development of the wagon speed of more than 9 km / h or when the magic pedals, which is under the feet of the operator in the car. With a certain periodicity of checking the brakes work.
To be effective, the brake cable car rails have a special profile with a broad wedge-shaped side surface of the head. This surface and pressed the emergency brake.
Gauge cable car - 1200 mm (compared to the width of railway track - 1,520 mm).
The cars each cable car is always designed individually, ie. To. The slope of the road, its length, width and size of the rail cars are different everywhere.
Cars Kiev funicular signed the letters "L" (left) and "R" (right) with respect to the upper station.
A contact network of 600 trailers are supplied to the interior lighting, heating and compressors, which are necessary for the opening of the door and the emergency brake. At the level of the rails can be seen two more wire: through them on cars supplied with current voltage of 24 V, which provides job management and cabin lighting. The reverse current as a high-voltage circuit and a low-voltage goes through the rails.
Each car can hold up to 100 people, of which 30 - seats. The weight of a car without passengers - about 10 tons.
In the old-fashioned carriages sitting operator that opens and closes the door, confirmed by radio readiness for dispatch, movement controls and, if necessary, can trigger the emergency brake and evacuate the passengers.
Pavilions funicular stations have long been firmly fit into the urban landscape.
The current view of the funicular gained after the reconstruction in 1984 (architect Janos Vig, Valentin Yezhov and others.).
The interior of the lower station. Decorative arches made of metal sheets interspersed with arches of stained glass:
At the level of the landing and landing platforms set lower station pavilion rises peculiar ladder:
If the appearance and even the location of the bottom station for the past hundred years have changed many times, the shape of the upper station, since the opening of the cable car is fundamentally not changed.
At the entrance to the upper station there is a small diorama illustrating the history of the cable car and the surrounding countryside.
upper station of the Pavilion:
On the upper station through a circular window at work watching the funicular operator:
Workplace driver. Very similar to the driver's workplace lift shaft stands
In the normal mode the movement of the cable car cabins controls automation. It is only necessary to run the system after receiving confirmation of the willingness of both cars.
The nominal speed of movement carriages - 7, 2 km / h (2 m / s). Without hearts coaches do not want to move
Directly under the driver's workplace is a room with a traction drive with the main brake. We go down and suddenly find ourselves in a room with two motor-compressors. The answer to my question "why is it here?" He was found in a nearby turbine hall.
Turbine hall. The most prominent part of the premises - a pulley through which the thrown rope holding the carriages. On both sides of the pulley grip the huge brake pads. In the foreground seen two traction motor power 82 kW, which are fed by the network voltage of 440 V.
On the opposite side of the room on both sides of the pulley rope come:
The brake pads are driven by a pneumatic (here and handy compressors). In the normal position blocks using goods that you see in the photos, are pressed against the pulley and the cable car are in the locked state. When moving trailers in the cylinders and receives compressed air pads decompressed by releasing the pulley.
The funicular is widely used, both as urban transport, and as a tourist attraction. Daily passenger flow - 10-15 thousand passengers.. On weekends and holidays on the funicular often long queues.
During the last year's record snowfall cable car was used as a ski lift for skiing on Andrew Descent
In 2008, we announced a tender for capital reconstruction of the cable car and the manufacturing of new cars. It plans to build a new carrier rack, replace the lighting system, fencing and cars, as well as to repair the upper and lower station. However, the announcement of the winner on the tender did not get, t. To. Prevented the economic crisis. New reconstruction should be the fourth in the history of Kiev funicular, but when it happens is still unknown.