Round town in meteorite crater
• Round city in the meteorite crater
We are considering a lot of stars, cities, well here such as: Palmanova (Palmanova), Naarden (Naarden), Burtanzh (Bourtange), Kastellet (Kastellet), and others. And now all the city.
Bavarian Nordlingen (Nördlingen) is fundamentally different from any other locality in the world. It is a medieval city, with a population of 20 000 people, is located entirely inside a massive meteor crater. This crater called Nördlinger Ries, and it was formed about 14, 5 million years ago, when a meteorite with a diameter of about a kilometer crashed into the Earth. And only less than fifty years ago, there is evidence that shed light on the true origin of the city.
Let's look at this town ... more
For centuries, it was believed that the vast recess in which the city is located, is a volcanic crater. In 1960, two American scientists - Eugene Shoemaker (known for the discovery of Comet Shoemaker-Levy) and Edward Chao proved that a huge hole was actually done by a meteorite.
During a visit to a church in the city of Nordlingen, which was built from local materials, Shoemaker was surprised he found that the stones of which the walls are folded, are quartz. The fact that such a breed as quartz is formed at shock pressures, usually caused by a meteorite. Subsequent studies of strange rock formations in the area of researchers finally confirmed in the opinion that the crater has appeared as a result of a meteorite impact.
There is another crater - Steinheim, about 3, 8 km in diameter, located approximately 42 kilometers west-south-west of the center of Nordling. These two craters are believed to have appeared at the same time after the fall of the double asteroid that broke up into pieces in the atmosphere.
Nördlingen (Nördlingen) - one of the three Bavarian towns completely preserved its ramparts in the original form. Fortifications were almost all more or less important German cities. But over time they began to greatly hinder the development of the urban economy and the need for them no longer existed. In varying degrees of integrity to admire the ancient walls, towers, gates and bastions can be in Munich, Nuremberg, Regensburg and elsewhere.
But only in Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Dinkelsbühl and Nordlingene ring of the medieval city walls remain intact. Fortress Nördlingen (Nördlingen) includes 2,600 meters wall 5 with the gate perverse towers, towers 11 and two other bastion.
Fourth Nördlingen - the only city in Germany with a fully preserved indoor combat passage (Wehrgang) on top of the walls. On it you can walk around the city, going down to the ground.
Fifth Nördlingen - the birthplace of the German football legend Gerd Müller (Gerhard Müller).
It seems to have these five reasons enough not to miss Nördlingen (Nördlingen) when traveling in Germany and Bavaria in particular. The area where the city is now located Nordlingen, was settled in the time of the Romans and Alemanni.
There is evidence confirming the existence of the Carolingian royal court "Nords" in 898 AD, and the Trinity in 1219 there was held a ten-day trade fair, which later became one of the most famous fairs in Southern Germany. This has helped the city to achieve autonomy.
Originally not tied to any feudal castle, the city grew and developed just in the cup bottom of the meteoritic crater Nordlingen Rice (it. Nördlinger Ries). The status of the imperial city of Nordlingen received in 1215. Residents of the city were tanners, fuller, tinsmiths and winemakers today in memory of them named streets of the old town. Since 1219 Nordlingen became a free trade center-city market. Here traded grain, vegetables, livestock, handicrafts and wine. But the 30-year war between Catholics and Protestants, which were drawn to other European countries, brought to this city incalculable loss. However, the walls of the city in 1634 the Swedes suffered their first defeat in the 30-year war. Nördlingen but was unable to recover from the effects of lost its economic and political power. The city's population has decreased by half.
Only in 1939 the city's population has increased so much that has reached the level of 1618, or about 9,000 people. With regard to development of the city has hardly changed over the past 300 years. To this day, preserved city wall full with towers, which have defense implications, and, along with other numerous historical buildings of the city, it attracts tourists from all over the world in this wonderful medieval town. Along with a tour of the major attractions Nördlingen, anyone interested in medieval architecture, pleasure walk through the fortifications of the city walls.
Let's start with the examination of the Old Town Market Square, where one can not ignore "Dance House" and the "high house" - a nine-story tower-house. Both structures belong to the XV century. "Dance House" has a three-storey, luxury, outstanding forward half-timbered gable. Previously it was used mostly by traders cloth for fairs. Area, surrounded by houses with modest facades, decorated with a statue of one of the patrons of the city - Emperor Maximilian I. The building of the current town hall, which arose in the XIII century as a trading house for the fair, served from 1382 at the same time the town hall, and is now one of the oldest town halls in Germany. Richly decorated with stone ornaments of its portal, as well as a Renaissance staircase, in 1618 replacing an earlier, wooden.
Opposite the Town Hall is a former pawnshop. Now here is the Tourism Bureau. Find on the north side of the square Eisengasse alley and follow along it, povernom the first lane on the left. On the next area until 1955 was a "House of furriers and potters." The characteristic building opposite called "Klösterle" (monastery), it was the church of the Franciscan monastery. After the Reformation it was used as a granary, later a warehouse, and today it is - the city hall for large events. Luxury main portal dates back to the time of reconstruction of the building (1586).
On the contrary stands the so-called "House Kayzhayma", which in 1278 - 1803. served as the imperial granary almshouses Kayzhayma later located here Court of the Land and District Office, today it is - a judicial authority.
Area Tändelmarkt (crush) leads us to the lanes and Nonnengasse Manggasse, passing through which, turn left, crossing the lane Vordere Gerbergasse, leave the old part of town.
Romantic with beautiful gables home tanners left (No 23) and right (No 2) are witnessing a strong culture of building construction craftsmen Nördlingen. In the western end of the lane offset to the right like a barn building "Holtshof" is currently used as a museum meteorite crater (Rieskrater-Museum). Museum with numerous exhibits and informative boards placed in six rooms. It also demonstrated interesting movies about the origin of the solar system and the Meteor Crater and the visit of the Moon by Apollo 16.
At the end of the street Hintere Gerbergasse start of Hospital District Court, the Board of Trustees of the medieval institution with outbuildings (d. A bakery, a mill, stables and so on.), Which occupies the territory until Baldingstraße streets. Accordingly, the plans of the founders, the hospital is still today a haven for the elderly and disabled. In the former hospital building is the City Museum, which presents the documents the city's history and the history of Nördlingen meteorite crater. Especially impressive staging opened caves skulls time mesolite (approx. 6000 BC. E.), Figurine piper Romans time from adjacent to Holhaymom (Holheim) Manor Roman times, diorama with tin figures reproducing famous battle under Nordlingenom (1634) and a characteristic pattern late Gothic Friedrich Herlyn (XV.) and Hans Shoyfelina (XVI c.).
Herrengasse lane between the river and Hebert is paved space, down to the river - a place for bathing horses (Rosswette). Herrengasse lane goes to the Weinmarkt Square, where there is a fountain Maria-Holl-Brunnen in memory of the brave Innkeeper, 56 have passed the severe torture during the persecution of heretics in the years 1589-96 and surviving. As a result of the persecution of heretics when 35 innocent people were killed here.
Powerful, like a pavilion (Hallgebäude), building 1543 served before storage for salt, wine, and grain. In an alley Neubaugasse y impressive half-timbered buildings, houses Winter, we will turn into the alley Bräugasse and, after a bit, then again we will turn left into the lane opened. Thus, we come to the Church of Corpus Christi (Herrgottskirche) or St. Sebastian. It was consecrated in 1442 as the Collegiate Church, but has undergone great changes in 1829. Its attractions are the figures of prophets in the soffit (converted to a bottom surface of the arch, vault, beam, cornice and) the western portal, wall paintings, the main altar, the pulpit reliefs and painting "Miracle of the Sacrament." All the above relates to the title XV century. Basteigasse lane takes us to the city walls of old bastions, which now serve as theatrical scenery for performances held here. Let's go along the wall to the gate Reimlinger Tor, then by the house Ellinger, once the granary of the Teutonic Order and the streets of Reimlinger Straße and Shäfflesmarkt heading the short way to the church of St. George.
Ee tower "Daniel" 90 m tall lighthouse serves us. This church, one of the great South German hall churches, fully completed in 1505, holds the baroque main altar, decorated with late Gothic sculpture, and late-Gothic baptismal font.
Anyone who wants a height of "Daniel" glance at Nördlingen and its surroundings has to overcome 350 steps of the tower. Every half hour from 22 pm to midnight watchman on the tower shouting here medieval password "So, C'sell, so!", Thus informing the citizens that he is on duty.
Going up the stone spiral staircase to the tower, you can see the old stepped wheel with which the sentinel on duty, the witness here in the country, including whether there will be where the fire, raised himself to the tower a basket of food.
From Nördlingen by leading Harburg (17 km) road in 25 can drive (pointer - a detour of 15 km) to the urban area Holheim (caves and estate Roman times) and then to the "Garden of Christ", (Christengarten, the smallest community in Bavaria, Gothic Carthusian choir). And then through the village Mönchsdeggingen (Benedictine monastery, Baroque church with the organ in 1693) back to the road again in 25. The second possible tour comes to visit the small town of Wemding in 17 km east of Nordlingen. Its attractions are the market square, town fortifications, the parish church, as well as near the pilgrimage church "Maria Brünnlein "Rococo. One of the roads in the south of Wemding leads directly to Harburg.