10 SECRETS OF ARCHEOLOGY, we might never uncover
• 10 SECRETS OF ARCHEOLOGY, we might never uncover
Archaeologists - strange people. They are ready to go for months in the godforsaken corners of our planet, to thoroughly dig into the ground ...
1. "Paracas Candelabra"
Many of you have probably heard about the Nazca Lines - huge cave paintings located in southern Peru, but few people know that in the same Nazca Desert, about 200 km from the geoglyphs, there is another mysterious object over which many years destination break head archaeologists.
"Candelabrum Paracas" (or "Andean candelabra") has a huge size: 128 m in length and 74 in width and line thickness is 4 m Despite the fact that it is located near Nazca lines, experts believe that the creators geoglyphs have not. no relation to it. Found during excavations in the area of "Candelabrum" artifacts suggest that the image created about 200-m BC, according to some reports, Nazca Lines appeared on 600-800 years later. The similarity of the images techniques alluding to the fact that the culture of Nazca is the successor of the Paracas culture, which belongs to "chandelier".
Scientists more or less clear, when there was a "Paracas Candelabra" and who created it, but the purpose of the ancient artists are still unclear. Some archaeologists believe that the object is a relic of the creator god Viracocha, worshiped by the local tribes, others believe that the image served as a landmark for ancient seafarers - the huge size "chandelier" is carved into the hillside, so it is perfectly visible from the ocean, with a distance of about 20 km.
2. "Uffington White Horse"
Stonehenge - is not the only archaeological site in good old England, though, when it comes to the antiquities of Albion, in the first place always remember it is about him.
above the giant stylized figure of a horse, situated near the village of Uffington, in what is now Oxfordshire, ancient sculptors had to work hard - line drawings are deep trenches filled with crushed chalk, the image length is 115 m Imagine the effort. the creators of "Horses" was worth decorate the hill like installation, because they did not have shovels, bulldozers and other technical devices, which can boast modern builders.
Figure similar to the images of horses, found on the coins of the Bronze Age, next to it, archaeologists have found the burial, presumably appeared in the Neolithic period. Scientists can not yet come to a consensus on the creation of time, "White Horse" - many of them claim that the object of the Bronze Age geoglyphs too well kept, but others point out that the locals since ancient times carefully monitor the state of the "Horses" and every few years, "update" drawing - this explains its almost original form.
3. "The Book of the Zagreb mummy"
"Zagreb linen book" is known as the longest text in Etruscan language of extant written records of this great culture. Adverb Etruscans had a marked effect on the formation of the Latin, but unfortunately, related to the Etruscan language does not currently exist, in addition, come down to us so few documents from that era that fully decipher the text "Books" is not possible - scientists only managed to translate some its fragments. From the well-known at the moment the content of the "Book of the Zagreb mummy" (another name for the artifact), it can be concluded that the document is a ritual calendar that describes the subtleties of the religious traditions of the Etruscans.
The book is dated III-th century BC, therefore, the very fact of its existence is unique - the manuscript, made of fabric, ruthless time, usually destroys much earlier. One of the reasons that the Etruscan culture monument is now available for the study, it is believed that the material of the book has been used to wrap an Egyptian mummy. "Zagreb linen book" was found on the mummy in the tomb near Alexandria in the middle of the XIX-th century, however, scientists have for a long time did not pay attention to it, believing that the mysterious handwriting on the fabric hand made Egyptian.
4. "Rock White Shaman"
Archaeologists and historians for many decades studying the artifacts of the peoples of North and South America, but is still pre-Columbian culture of American history remains a mystery for specialists in many ways.
"White Shaman Rock", located near the Pecos River in present-day Texas, ranked among the most famous and at the same time - the most mysterious monuments of the era. According to scientists, a huge (about 7 meters in length) pattern appeared more than 4 thousand years ago and belongs to the ancient culture, which is now virtually nothing is known. Some archaeologists believe that the art object depicts a scene of the battle, or any ritual combat, and it is believed that the artist showed the moment of communion with the spirits of the ancient means of mescaline, a psychotropic substance contained in the peyote cactus.
5. The geoglyphs mountains Sayama
Rock carvings found in Bolivia, one of the slopes of Mount Sayama, the technique of creating resemble Nazca Lines and the "Paracas Candelabra" - they, too, are carved into the solid rock, and the Bolivian figures much more Peruvian - images occupy an area of about 7, 5 thousand m² (15 times more than the Nazca lines), the length of some of the lines that make up objects Sayama, has about 18 km.
With such outstanding amounts geoglyphs mountains Sayama still hardly explored - the true extent of the work done by the ancient artists became known recently that archaeologists have the opportunity to use satellite imagery in their research areas. Amazing accuracy and accurate drawing of lines put experts in a blind alley - they seem drawn with a ruler. Image purpose also remains unclear, according to some assumptions, the ancient inhabitants of Bolivia with their help made astronomical calculations, moreover, the pattern may be a form of ritual burial.
6. Artifacts Terterii
Three stone tablets found by scientists around the Romanian villages Terteriya contain characters that are now the oldest written language in the world.
Initially, scientists have suggested that Terterii tablets date back to the third millennium BC, but more thorough radiocarbon analysis revealed that the artifacts are much older. Now, most archaeologists agree that the plates are created about 7, 5 thousand years ago, long before the Sumerian script, which was previously considered to be the oldest in the world. Most likely, the findings of the Romanian archaeologists belong to the pre-Indo culture of Vinca, which was extended to the territory of modern South-Eastern Europe in the Neolithic era, as the symbols on the labels are very similar to the icon depicted on the found in 1875 near the Serbian town of Vinca remains of ancient ceramics.
7. Blythe Intaglios
This archaeological site is located in southern California in the Colorado desert, near the town of Blythe, is soboygigantskie geometric shapes as well as animal and human images. The length of the big picture has about 50 m, and up to 1932, the experts had no idea about the size of "installation", its value could be determined only with the help of aerial photographs.
Archaeologists can not agree on the age geoglyphs - called the numbers from 450 to 2 thousand years, and it is unclear exactly what is shown in the figures. According to one of the most common version, the huge figures created by the ancestors of the Native American tribes of the Mojave and Quechan, currently living in the lower reaches of the Colorado River. According to legends of the indigenous people of this region, in the form of human figures artists depicted different incarnation of the god Mastambo, Creator of all things, and animals painted them - not that other, as zverochelovek Hatakulya, who took part in the creation of the world.
8. The Death of Alexander the Great,
Alexander the Great - one of the most famous historical characters, the life of the great commander devoted thousands of scientific and artistic books, hundreds of movies, but the reason for his death is now almost nothing is known.
Most historians agree with the accepted in orthodox scientific community view on the time and place of the death of Alexander - 10 June 323rd BC, the palace of Nebuchadnezzar II-nd in Babylon, but what killed most ambitious conqueror in history - a convincing answer this issue is still there.
For a long time it was thought that Alexander was poisoned, and in the suspects visited almost all the members of his entourage - from generals to lovers of exceptional historical figure. poisoning version is based on the testimony of his contemporaries, who claim that the invincible Alexander suddenly struck an unknown disease, about two weeks he spent, suffering severe abdominal pain, and then died. This information can not be considered conclusive evidence of poisoning commander, as these symptoms may indicate pancreatitis, hepatitis, endocarditis, or any infectious disease, such as typhoid fever or malaria. When the then level of medicine development of any of these diseases could become fatal for Alexander. Surprisingly, the death of Alexander was predicted by the Chaldeans who lived in Babylon - they warned the commander that he would die soon after will enter into Babylon, in addition, the copepods, one of the scientists who accompanied the invading army, dying, told Alexander that when he army conquered Babylon, they will meet again. So do not believe then soothsayers.
9. The Minaret of Jam
Minaret of Jam is located in north-western Afghanistan, it was built at the turn of XII-th and XIII-th century, but its perfect design, stunning decor and the skill of the medieval Afghan builders still surprised all who had occasion to contemplate this architectural masterpiece of fired brick .
The height of the minaret - about 60 meters, according to one of the inscriptions on its walls, the building was built in 1194, the year after winning the Sultan Giyazov al-Din over the army of the ruler of the Ghaznavid dynasty, but many experts are questioning the information. According to one version, the minaret - all that remained of the city firozkohi (which means "Turquoise Mountain"), which in the heyday of the dynasty Gourd was the capital of the empire covering the territory of modern Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan and India.
In the beginning of XIII-th century the armed forces of the Mongol Empire, under the command of the notorious Genghis Khan wiped the city off the map, but they somehow overlooked the tall minaret. Due to this carelessness of the Mongols, and the fact that almost 700 years no one thought after the invasion of Genghis Khan on the building, an architectural monument of perfectly preserved, but at the present time to carry out comprehensive research buildings is not possible due to the unstable socio-political situation in Afghanistan.
10. "The Emerald Tablet"
Unlike other archaeological phenomena compilation, "The Emerald Tablet" has not survived to our time, so that the scientists do not know who was the author of the original of the document for which it was intended and what fate befell the monument of medieval Oriental art. The only thing about the Emerald Tablet is for sure - what about it was first mentioned in an Arab book, dated VI-th and VIII-th century AD. Some early copies of "Tablet", made by Arab translators, there is evidence that the original was written in Syriac language, but the evidence for this from the experts yet. The earliest Latin translations of the tablets is dated XII-th centuries were later created several versions of the text, the authorship of one of them belongs to the famous scientist, Sir Isaac Newton.
According to some scientists, "Emerald Tablet" describes the technology transformation of various metals into gold with the help of a mythical substance, known as the Philosopher's Stone, but so far no one has managed to conduct this alchemical experience - probably Latin and Arabic translations of the original "instructions" do not too accurate.