25 richest people in the history of Russia
To what heights of wealth and position traveled by our ancestors? Whose names are inscribed in golden letters in the history of Russian capitalism? What rules adhered to Russian businessmen and public areas have made their money?
We publish an excellent selection that gives answers to all these questions.
1. Anikei Stroganov (1488-1570)
Anika Stroganov during the reign of Ivan the Terrible was the most influential Russian businessman. He controlled the northern trade with England, develop land, traded furs, developed salt industry and was one of the organizers of Ermak's expedition.
2. Akinfiy Demidov (1678-1745)
Akinfiy Demidov was the most successful industrialist of his time, philanthropist, founder of the mining industry in the Urals and Siberia. By the end of his life Akinfiy N. had 25 plants on which 23755 males (average of 1000 people per 1 plant) were employed. Nizhny Tagil factory main creation Demidov works today.
3. Savva Yakovlev (1712-1784)
Savva Yakovlev, born Sobakin, was the son of the philistine, but achieved his nobility activities. He began with the sale of beef at the Summer Garden, where he was spotted Elizabeth. As a result, he became the supplier of the court, and the benefactor of the Empress opened the way for him in the business. Under Catherine, from 1766 to 1779 years, Yakovlev 16 buys and builds 6 factories in the Urals. Its enrichment in terms of methods and did not have analogues in Russian history.
4. Grigory Potemkin (1739-1791)
Grigory Potemkin was not just a favorite of Catherine II, but also its secret husband. When this can not be called Potemkin gigolo. He successfully commanded the Russian army during the war with Turkey, 1787 - 1791, respectively, carried out joining Russia and the development of the Crimea, he founded a few cities, and actually created the Russian Black Sea fleet. Empress bestowed Potemkin huge land holdings in the New Russia, which made him the richest man in Russia.
5. Grigory Orlov (1737-1808)
Member of a coup d'etat to overthrow Peter III, Gregory Orlov immediately after the reign of Empress Catherine II received a generous reward - the rich estates, money, the title of count. It was called the first of the "heads" of Catherine, but by 1771 he ceased to be the first. In the same year he was sent in the throes of an epidemic of plague and rebellion Moscow and coped well with the organization of measures to resolve the situation.
6. Vasily Perlite (1784 - 1869)
Barley - "tea king" of Russia. The most successful of them, Basil managed to win not only the Russian tea market, but also to conquer Europe. He was one of the first who began to pack up and graded tea and shipping it from China to exercise by land, making the product quality has always been on top.
In 1860 Vasily opened under your name company - Trade Partnership tea "Basil Perlove sons." The firm opened tea shops commercial house in Vienna, Berlin, Paris and Warsaw.
7. Samuel Polyakov (1837-1888)
Industrialist and philanthropist, Polyakov has made a fortune during a hand rail concessions. Review of Sergei Witte, Samuel Polyakov was "the most infamous of the railroad bigwigs." He is actively built railroads, schools opened and generously donated to the development of education. Status Polyakovs brothers on 1913 was estimated at 49, 5 million gold rubles ($ 544 million at the exchange rate in 2000).
8. Pavel Tretyakov (1832-1889)
Philanthropist, entrepreneur and art collector Pavel Tretyakov realized his dream - made collection of Russian schools, to "acquired from the society would also have returned to society (people) in ... useful facilities". His art gallery, open to all citizens "without distinction of race and the title," has become one of the largest museums in Europe. Tretyakov state at the time of his death was estimated at 3, 8 million rubles.
In the XIX century Russia was saying, "Where the Church is, there is pop, where the factory - there Knop". It appeared out of nowhere - the founder of the trade "LA home Knop "has been a shareholder in more than 100 companies.
"Cotton King" as they called the Lion Knoop, according to contemporaries, has made great strides in part "due to its ability to stomach and drink, keeping a full head clear." Knop state in 1913 was estimated at 15-120 million rubles ($ 187 million at the exchange rate in 2000).
10. Petr Smirnov (1831-1898)
Peter Arsenijevic Smirnov, who founded a factory in 1862, was a true "vodka king" of Russia. The tax, which goes to the treasury with his enterprise, equal to half the pre-war budget of the Russian army. Cost of manufactured products for the year reached 17-20 mln. Rubles. Status of the vodka magnate was estimated at 8, 7 million rubles ($ 95, 7 million at the exchange rate in 2000).
11. Soldatenkov Kozma (1818-1901)
Old Believer, industrialist and entrepreneur Kozma Soldatenkov was one of the most brilliant and creative people of his time. For the rich and generous patronage of the arts, he was nicknamed "Kozma Medici." His condition was equal to 8 million rubles in 1901 ($ 88 at the exchange rate in 2000).
12. Gavrila Solodovnikov (1826-1901)
Moscow merchant and landlord, the owner of the supermarket, "Passage" at Kuznetsky Most, Gavrila Gavrilovich Solodovnikov more than 95% of its multi-million dollar inheritance given for public purposes. Not really knowing how to write, he generously donated to the art. The groundbreaking ceremony of the Moscow Conservatory with the cry "Let there be music!" Solodovnikov cast in concrete 200 silver rubles. His fortune was estimated at 21 million rubles in 1901 ($ 231 million at the exchange rate in 2000).
13. Alex Alchevsk (1835-1901)
Over 40 years of Alexei K. Alchevsk created the largest mining companies in the Donbass, and some banks, for example, one of the country's first Mutual Credit Society, and in 1871 - the first Russian equity mortgage bank. In the crisis of 1901, received from the government denial of the loan, Alchevsk threw himself under a train (according to one version, he was killed). His condition at that time was estimated at 12-30 million rubles ($ 187 million at the exchange rate in 2000).
14. Savva Morozov (1862-1905)
Savva Morozov called "merchant warlord", but he became known for philanthropic activities. Morozov built theaters, supported artists, writers, students and workers. Only one MKhAT he donated nearly half a million rubles. He died Savva Morozov, 26 th May 1905. According to the official version, the cause of death - suicide: Morozov committed suicide by a shot to the chest. Status Morozov dynasty in 1914 was estimated at 40 million rubles ($ 440 million at the exchange rate in 2000).
15. Horace Gunzburg (1833-1909)
Thanks to contacts with the largest financiers of Europe (Ginzburgs themselves intermarried with the Rothschilds), Bank for their 1860 th has become one of the largest in Russia. Its head Horace Gunzburg invested in insurance, gold mines, railways, shipping company, the sugar mills. After 1892 Horace Gunzburg became involved in gold mining. He led, and then took control of the richest gold mining partnership Lensky. Gunzburg state in 1914 was estimated at 25 million rubles ($ 275 million at the exchange rate in 2000).
16. Mantashev Alexander (1842-1911)
Tiflis Armenian Mantashev Alexander was one of the "oil barons" of Transcaucasia, a major shareholder of the leading oil companies. In 1897-1909 years he financed the construction of the world's longest 835-kilometer oil pipeline Baku - Batum. At the beginning of the twentieth century the state Mantsheva otsnivalos 10 million rubles ($ 110 million at the exchange rate in 2000).
17. Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov (1837-1916)
A personal friend of Alexander III of, the creator of the secret monarchist organization "Sacred squad", a war hero, Adjutant General Vorontsov-Dashkov was one of the largest Russian landowners (about 485,000 acres of land) and a successful industrialist. Among other things he was doing, and oil. His condition at the beginning of the twentieth century is estimated at 15 million rubles ($ 165 million at the exchange rate in 2000).
18. Semen Abamalek-Lazarev (1857-1916)
Prince, an industrialist, an archaeologist, a large landowner, mine owners, Simon Abamalek Lazare was a very versatile person, and one of the richest people in Russia at the beginning of the twentieth century. He owned several villas in Italy and a mansion in St. Petersburg. Status tycoon in 1914 was estimated at 50 million rubles (550 million at the exchange rate in 2000).
19. Savva Mamontov (1841-1918)
History Savva Mamontov indicative, high and tragic. The heir to a large fortune, Savva Mamontov was interested in business is not enough - he was more attracted art. After the failure to conduct "train business" Savva Mamontov was in the Taganka prison. His property was sold out almost completely. Unfortunate railroad went for nothing in state ownership of the shares went to other businesses, including the relatives of Sergei Witte.
20. Nicholas II (1866-1918)
State from Irkutsk Nicholas Vtorov in 1914 amounted to 60 million rubles ($ 650 million at the exchange rate in 2000). He was called "Siberian American" and "Russian Morgan." He bought up banks and build factories. They were founded Russia's first chemical dye factory, the plant "Elektrostal" Moscow Association of automobile plant "AMO" (with Ryabushinskys now ZIL). The war factories Vtorov worked on "defense industry". In May 1918, Nicholas II was killed under mysterious circumstances. In his Moscow mansion made the residence of the American ambassador ( "Spaso House").
21. Paul Ryabushinsky (1871-1924)
Ryabushinskys representative of the famous dynasty, Pavel Pavlovich engaged in business and banking, to build factories and actively participated in the political life of Russia. In 1920 he emigrated to France. In 1914, the state Ryabushinskys estimated at 25-35 million rubles ($ 330 million at the exchange rate in 2000).
22. Nikolai Balashov (1840-1931)
By the beginning of XX century the Chief Master of the Hunt, and a member of the State Council Nikolai Balashov with his sons Peter and Igor had one of the largest in the country land ownership - 526 thousand acres of land. They could live comfortably without doing anything, but they were still dozens of companies across the country. Their condition at the beginning of the twentieth century is estimated at 15 million rubles ($ 165 million at the exchange rate in 2000).
23. Boris Kamenka (1855-1942)
Banker Boris Kamenka since 1910 headed the Azov-Don Bank, which, when it became the fourth in the ranking of the commercial banks of the Russian Empire. Kamenka is also actively involved in the activities of the Jewish Colonization Association, founded to organize the resettlement of Jews in America. In 1914, the state banker estimated at 40 million rubles ($ 440 million at the exchange rate in 2000).
24. Stepan Lianozov (1872-1949)
Armenian Stepan Lianozov was a Russian industrialist, philanthropist and politician, as well as the largest Russian oil tycoon of the XX century. In 1912 Stepan Lianozovo in London, was created "Russian General Petroleum Corporation" ( "Russian General Oil Corporation", abbreviated "Oyl") with capital of 2, 5 million pounds. Thanks to the actions Lianozov, Baku's oil sector has become attractive to foreigners. In 1915, the state of the tycoon was estimated at 10 million rubles ($ 110 million at the exchange rate in 2000).
25. Felix Yusupov (1887-1967)
Felix Yusupov was one of the richest men in Russia in the early twentieth century. In 1900, the value of estates, villas and houses Yusupov was 21, 7 million rubles, anthracite mine - 970,000 rubles, sugar plant - 1, 6 million rubles, cardboard and paper mills - 986 000 rubles. By 1914, Yusupov had 3, 2 million rubles of securities. However, Felix Yusupov went down in history not as a rich man, but as a murderer of Rasputin.