10 most expensive supercomputers, which affects its capacity
The first supercomputer, Atlas appeared in the early 60s and was installed in the University of Manchester. He was at times less powerful than today's home computers. In our survey we collected ten most powerful supercomputers in history. However, it makes it possible to rapidly developing technologies in the field obsolete these powerful machines in the 5-year average.
The performance of modern supercomputers is measured in petaflops - a unit of measurement that indicates how many floating-point operations per second the computer performs. Today we will focus on the ten most expensive modern supercomputers.
IBM Roadrunner (US) - $ 130m
Roadrunner was built by IBM in 2008 for the National Laboratory in Los Alamos (New Mexico, United States). He became the world's first computer, the average labor productivity which over 1 petaflops. In this case, it was designed for maximum performance in the 1, 7 petaflops. According to the list of Supermicro Green500, 2008 Roadrunner was the fourth energy supercomputer in the world. Roadrunner was decommissioned 31 March 2013, after which it was replaced by a smaller and more energy efficient supercomputer called Cielo.
Vulcan BlueGene / Q (USA) - 100 million dollars
Vulcan - a supercomputer, which consists of 24 single-rack unit - was created by IBM for the Ministry of Energy and installed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Lawrence County, California. It has a peak performance of 5 petaflops and is currently the ninth-speed supercomputer in the world. Vulcan came into operation in 2013 and is now used for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the field of biology research, plasma physics, climate change, molecular systems, and so on. D.
SuperMUC (Germany) - 111 million dollars
SuperMUC is currently 14th on the speed of a supercomputer in the world. In 2013, he was the 10th, but the development is not in place technology. Nevertheless, it is currently the second-speed supercomputer in Germany. SuperMUC is run by Leibniz Supercomputing Center of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences near Munich.
The system was created by the IBM, runs on Linux shell, it contains more than 19,000 Intel processors and Westmere-EX, and also has a peak performance of just over 3 petaflops. SuperMUC used by European researchers in the field of medicine, astrophysics, quantum chromodynamics, computational fluid dynamics, computational chemistry, genomic analysis and modeling of earthquakes.
Trinity (United States) - $ 174 million
One would expect that such a supercomputer (considering that for which it is constructed) must be insanely expensive, but cheaper price was made possible thanks to the development of technologies Trinity. The US government is going to use the Trinity in order to support the efficacy and safety of America's nuclear arsenal.
Trinity, which is currently under construction, will be a joint project of the Sandia National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory in the framework of predictive modeling and computer processing of the National Nuclear Security Administration data.
Sequoia BlueGene / Q (USA) - 250 million dollars
Class supercomputer Sequoia BlueGene / Q was developed by IBM for the National Nuclear Security Administration within the framework of predictive modeling software and computer data processing. It was launched in June 2012 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and became at that time the fastest supercomputer in the world. He is now ranked third in the world in terms of speed (theoretical peak performance Sequoia - 20 petaflops, or 20 trillion calculations per second). Stable computer running at 10 petaflops. Sequoia is used to support a variety of scientific applications, the study of astronomy, energy, human genome, climate change and the development of nuclear weapons.
ASC Purple and BlueGene / L (US) - $ 290m
The two have worked together a supercomputer. They were built by IBM and installed in 2005 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Of service they were withdrawn in 2010. At the time of ASC Purple held the 66th place on the speed of the list of top 500 supercomputers, and BlueGene / L was the previous generation BlueGene / Q models.
ASC Purple was built for the fifth stage of the predictive modeling software and computer processing of data by the US Department of Energy and the National Nuclear Security Administration. Its purpose is simulation and real tests replacement weapons of mass destruction. BlueGene / L was used to predict global climate change.
and Sierra Summit (United States) - 325 million dollars
Nvidia and IBM will soon help America regain its leading position in the field of high-speed supercomputer technologies, scientific research, as well as economic and national security. Both computers will be completed in 2017.
Currently, the fastest supercomputer in the world is Chinese Tianhe-2, which is able to achieve a power of 55 petaflops, which is two times more than the device which is in second place in the list. Sierra will produce more than 100 petaflops, while the Summit will develop 300 petaflops. Sierra, which will be installed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, will ensure the safety and efficiency of the country's nuclear program. Summit will replace outdated Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and will be designed to support testing and scientific applications worldwide.
Tianhe-2 (China) - $ 390 million
Chinese Tianhe-2 (which translates as "Milky Way - 2") is the fastest supercomputer in the world. The computer, developed by a team of 1,300 scientists and engineers in the National Supercomputer Center in Guangzhou. It was built by China's defense science and technology university People's Liberation Army of China. Tianhe-2 is capable of performing 33 860 trillion calculations per second. For example, one hour of calculations the supercomputer equivalent to 1000 years of work 1, 3 billion people. Used machine for modeling and analysis of government security systems.
Earth Simulator (Japan) - $ 500 million
"Earth Simulator" has been developed by the Japanese government in 1997. The project will cost 60 billion yen, or about $ 500 million. Earth Simulator was completed in 2002 for the agency Japan Aerospace Studies, the Japan Research Institute of Atomic Energy and the Japan Center for marine and terrestrial research and technology.
ES was the fastest supercomputer in the world from 2002 to 2004, and it is to this day to work with global climate models to assess the impact of global warming and evaluation of Geophysics of the Earth's crust problems.
Fujitsu K (Japan) - 1, 2 billion dollars
World's most expensive supercomputer just the world's fourth speed (11 petaflops). In 2011, he was the fastest supercomputer in the world. Fujitsu K, located at the Institute of RIKEN Advanced Computational Technologies, approximately 60 times faster than the Earth Simulator. In his service takes about $ 10 million a year, and uses the supercomputer 9, 89 MW of power (how many use 10 000 country houses, or one million personal computers).