Yesenin: "Never with me I do not polazhu"
• Yesenin: "Never with me I do not polazhu"
In January 1924, the poet Sergei Yesenin was discharged from a sanatorium for nervous disorders, releasing him to bid farewell to the deceased leader of the Revolution, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. Shortly before the statement Esenina visited poet Ivnev Rurik, who described the disease state mate: "He said in a half whisper, looked around, and then began to get nervous, said the need to change seats from the window, because he was being followed, will see and start the stone." Memories of friends and contemporaries of that period describe the disorder that psychiatry is called "delusions of persecution."
Personality of the great Russian poet Sergei Alexandrovich Yesenin is complex and multifaceted, and contradictory memories of him, but researchers and admirers of his poetry converge on the fact that he was very talented and loved Russia to oblivion.
Yesenin died at the age of 30 years. The official version says that the poet committed suicide, but the debate about what happened on the fateful night of December 28, 1925 in Leningrad hotel "Angleterre", carried out so far.
In any case, a great artistic legacy that has left Yesenin, includes not only poems about the beauty of Russian nature, are well known to us from the school curriculum, but also dramatic cycles, telling about the mental anguish of the poet, who suffered at According to experts, severe alcohol dependence. The consequence of alcohol abuse were bouts of melancholy and unmotivated aggression, delusions of persecution by visual and auditory hallucinations, insomnia, painful, severe remorse and suicidal thoughts.
As early as adolescence Esenina have begun to appear, seemingly unfounded temper, anger and conflict. The future poet did not tolerate contradictions and superiority over them, in whatever it was expressed. Anger, the memories sisters Esenina, flashed him suddenly and just as suddenly disappear. People he assessed according to their relation to each other and share good and bad, in the selfless and greedy on truthful and false.
The first attempt of suicide, of which we become aware of the poet's letters, sent by his school friend Grisha Panfilov Yesenin taken at age 17: "I could not bear the fact that I am talking about the empty language, and drank some essences. I grabbed the spirit and somehow started frothing. I was conscious, but in front of me all blanketed some murky haze. " Yesenin took this drastic step after a while after his father moved out, hoping to make his way into the literary future without assistance, but collided with the harsh reality of life from hand to mouth and the need to take care of the daily bread of the young man brought to despair. (Photo: Grigory Panfilov - from left and Sergei Yesenin - on the right.)
Finally, in March 1913 Yesenin finds work in the Moscow printing ID Sytin at Pyatnitskaya Street, but earned only enough for food and purchase books, and his life remains unsettled. The restless nature of the young man and his anger did not contribute to the rapprochement with the employees of the printing house. His thoughts he shares only with a friend Grisha Panfilov: "How absurd is our life. It distorts us from the cradle, and instead of the real people overlook some freaks. I feel crazy here, and was about to take to a psychiatrist, but I sent all to the devil and live, although some fear my approach. Yes, Grisha, love and feel sorry for people. Love and oppressors and not stigmatized. "
The motive of his own early death is often heard in the poems of the poet, written in different years. "Everyone I meet, all accept, glad and happy soul removed. I came to this earth, that they might leave it "(1914). "Himself the deceased in a coffin I see a sexton alliluynye groaning, I forever dead himself descends below, putting them two copper Piglet ..." (1924).
Sergei Yesenin Introduction to American dancer Isadora Duncan was held in 1921. Isadora was the older poet for 17 years, it does not chayala soul in his young lover, written on a mirror in lipstick "I lublu Yesenin", gave him expensive gifts and anything she could not refuse.
Attachment Isadora Duncan Sergei Yesenin often due to the similarity with the poet who tragically died in childhood the son of a dancer. Yesenin and Duncan were married in May 1922, when Isadora was going to tour abroad, and Sergei would not give a visa if he was not married to her. May 10, 1922 the couple flew from Moscow to Kaliningrad, and then - in Berlin.
Shortly after arrival in Germany at the Isadora Duncan began tours around the country, where it was accompanied by Sergei Yesenin, who lost is now able to devote all his time to writing poems. The constant internal struggle between the desire of creative work and accessibility to this it shook the nervous system and cause mental suffering. The void he tried to plug the expensive suits and shoes, which are sewed on the money Duncan and poured alcohol.
One of the doctors noticed Isadora Duncan at the unhealthy appearance of the poet: pale face, bags under the eyes, swelling, cough, hoarse voice - and warned that he should immediately stop the use of alcohol, which even in small doses acts detrimental, "otherwise maniac "will have you in charge. Drunk Yesenin was prone to bouts of unprovoked aggression, primarily against Isadora, but often battered and others.
As he tried Isadora Duncan instill the reading public in Europe and America, that Yesenin - ingenious Russian poet, he was perceived only as the young wife of the famous dancer, admired his elegance and physical form, predicted career. "I pray to God not to die soul and not to lose the love of my art. It is no use to anyone "- wrote Yesenin his friend Anatoly Marienhof.
After a long stay abroad Yesenin and Isadora Duncan returned to Moscow and soon parted. At a meeting with his translator Ilya Schneider Isadora said, "I took away the child from Russia, where living conditions were difficult. I wanted to save it for the world. Now he has returned home to save his mind, because without Russia it can not live. "
While living in Moscow, Yesenin wrote poetry almost daily, but this did not prevent him from meeting with former friends, who spent much time in restaurants, where the eating and drinking at the expense of Sergei Alexandrovich. The poet Vsevolod Rozhdestvensky recalled how changed Yesenin after returning to Russia: "The face was swollen, his eyes bleary and sad, heavy eyelids, and two deep lines around the mouth. Expression of profound fatigue never left him, even when he laughed. His hands trembled noticeably. Everything in it is indicative of some internal confusion. " At the same time Christmas noticed how quickly went from Yesenin fun explosions to the blackest melancholy, how unusual was reclusive and untrusting.
The poet increasingly found himself in the scandalous stories, become initiated fights, insulting others. After one of these scandals Yesenin was sent to a sanatorium for nervous disorders from which he was discharged in January 1924 to bid farewell to the deceased leader of the Revolution, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin.
After being discharged in Moscow there were rumors about the eccentricities of the poet, they may have been somewhat exaggerated by the press. If he is in a cafe someone wanted to hit a chair, he lashed out at the doorman, whose behavior seemed suspicious, and in another place "in a visitor threw a plate with vinaigrette." However, people close to Sergei Yesenin, in one voice that the poet suffers from a mental disorder.
Memories of friends and contemporaries of that period describe the disorder that in psychiatry called delusions of persecution. From the memoirs of Ilya Ehrenburg, "Yesenin never stay in one place, suspected of machinations, even his friends thought that was going to die." editor of "Red Virgin Soil" Alexander Voronsky wrote: "Yesenin said that he had many enemies who plot against him and were going to kill." One day, while sitting in the office Voronsky poet worried, "he opened the door and saw the security guard on duty, and began to strangle him," taking the killer had sent. Voronsky was sure that at that moment Yesenin saw hallucinations.
Friends Yesenin said that once in the hotel it attacked the bats, "Gray ugly cemetery all night do not let me sleep." According to him, "they flew out the window, first one was hanging on the bed, I hit his hand, and he sat on the cabinet. When turned on the light, I saw that he had red claws as manicured, and mouth blood-red stripe. "
In March 1925, Sergei Yesenin met with Sophia Andreyevna Tolstoy - the granddaughter of Leo Tolstoy. The Countess was delighted with the attentions Esenina, was ready to be his assistant and friend, what family and said that a negative attitude to her choice, knowing the groom addiction to alcohol abuse and his troubled character. Friends noticed that Tolstoy changed Yesenin, he was often seen walking around Moscow with her arm, always sober, in an elegant suit. Others thought that more will start strong and fruitful life for him, but it was not to happen.
In September, 1925 Yesenin married Sophia Tolstoy and moved into her apartment. Poet friend said that in the apartment of his annoying and bulky furniture that "overcame beard", ie. E. Leo Tolstoy's portraits on the walls and tables in which Yesenin tried to throw something heavy. He began to invite friends to the apartment to arrange wine party or come in to him, and returned permanently drunk.
One day Yesenin thrown from the balcony of the apartment Thick your bust by sculptor Konenkov, stating that "Sergei hot and stuffy." Bust crumbled to pieces. Mother Sophia Tolstoy later told her friend, "We have lived some types of hooligans and drunk, sleeping on our beds. We ate and drank for money Esenina and Sonia did not have shoes. But you can not blame him. He's a sick man. Sonya is a pity. "
In November 1925 Yesenin went to Leningrad to visit friends and stayed at the Sakharov writer. Sakharov's memoirs of known that he felt the night that someone strangles him, turned on the light and saw the Esenina view in addition was scared. Sakharov was able to calm the poet and put to bed, but in the morning there was a jingle of broken glass. Sakharov saw Yesenin stands in the middle of the room in tears, showered shrapnel. The writer realized that Sergei suffered another bout of illness, sent to Moscow and advised his mother to show the doctors.
November 26, 1925, Sergei Yesenin was hospitalized in a psychiatric clinic of Moscow University, which at that time was in charge of a well-known in the medical world, Professor Peter B. Gannushkina.
a private room on the second floor has been allocated in the clinic Yesenin. The situation here was comfortable, close to home, everywhere lay rugs and carpets, were sofas and chairs, paintings on the walls. Being in a psychiatric hospital, Yesenin not stopped writing poems. On the third day of stay in the hospital out of the window he saw a maple covered with snow, on the same day was born the famous poem: "Maple Oh my dear, maple icy that stand stooped under a blizzard of white?"
In spite of the seemingly favorable conditions for life, Esenina all annoyed: and constantly open door of the hospital room, which looked interesting patients, and the light of a lamp that was never turned off, and walks accompanied by personnel (the poet was under constant supervision because of suicidal thoughts).
December 20, 1925 Esenina to the hospital to visit Anna Abramovna Berzin, who later in his memoirs about this visit, wrote: "The attending physician of the poet - a kind and gentle man - warned that I did not pass Yesenin piercing and cutting items, and ropes and laces to the patient is not able to use them with suicidal intent. He explained that the disease is severe and there is no hope of recovery and that he did not live more than a year. "
From the meeting with his wife Sofia Andreyevna Yesenin refused, considering it initiated its own premises in the clinic. A December 21, 1925 in the House of the poet is not found. After the meeting with some friends who brought a winter coat, hat and shoes, Yesenin changed and disguised as a visitor walked past the guards. The clinic took on the search for the fugitive measures sought everywhere doctor Aranson called relatives and friends of the poet, but to those who did not have the phone, driving home. Three days later, after escaping from the hospital Yesenin showed up at the home of Tolstoy, family sighed with relief, but the joy was short-lived. Not health, not saying a word, the poet frantically to collect things, and when the suitcases were ready, he, without saying goodbye, went out and slammed the door. Moscow Yesenin fled to Leningrad, where he arrived on December 24, 1925.
Upon arrival in Leningrad poet took "Angleterre" room on the second floor of the hotel. In the evening at his home was familiar literary reminisced about the past. Yesenin read the poem "Black Man" in its final form: "My friend, my friend, I am very, very ill, I do not know where this pain, whether the wind whistling over the empty and deserted field, the only weapon like a grove of showers in September the brains of alcohol ... "
The next day, December 25, the poet Sergei Yesenin asked Ehrlich to stay with him overnight, as we know from the memoirs of the latter. Ehrlich wrote that Yesenin feel fear, afraid to stay alone in the room, explaining that he wanted to kill, warned the guard on duty, without permission to anyone to it is not allowed. (In the photo - Wolf Ehrlich.)
From the investigation documents is known that on 27 December Yesenin again had a lot of guests. Poet entertained all the wine and then read the "black man" and then ripped from a notebook written sheet and put the poet Ehrlich in his inside pocket, saying that he read later. Yesenin explained that he wrote this poem blood this morning, "as even the ink is not in this lousy hotel", and showed the cuts on his hand, which he took from the blood. Ehrlich had no idea that sees Esenina alive for the last time.
Esenina body was found December 28, 1925. From the testimony of the commandant of the hotel "Angleterre" Nazarov: "... a citizen Ustinova and her citizen Ehrlich overtook me and, clutching his head in terror asked me to return to the room 5. I walked in and saw Esenina steam heating pipe hanging on a rope." (Photo of the room №5, made after the poet's discovery of the body.)
Sergei Yesenin was buried Dec. 31, 1925 in Moscow at the cemetery Vagankovsky.
Last Poet poem was published in the Moscow and Leningrad newspapers a few days after the tragic death of Sergey Yesenin, many took it as a suicide note:
"Goodbye, my friend, goodbye.
My dear, you're in my chest.
He promises to meet ahead.
Goodbye, my friend, without arms, without a word, Do not be sad nor sorrow eyebrows -
In this life to die is not new, but also to live, of course, not newer. "