5 most ancient books, extant
• 5 the oldest books extant
Many believe that in the age of information technology the book loses its significance. But before it was the only way to transfer knowledge across generations. The oldest books extant, causing awe, and for academic historians they are invaluable.
1. The Book of the Dead
The Mystic Book of the Dead often appear in adventure films. But her original name, "the Head of the output to the light of day." The book is a collection of ancient Egyptian papyrus with prayers, spells that were supposed to help the deceased go to the other world. The name "Book of the Dead" gave Egyptologist Lepsius. Book created between VI of I century BC. e.
2. The Garima Gospels
In the monastery of St. Garima (Ethiopia) are stored two Gospels, created in the period from 330 650 years. They are written in Ge'ez - the sacred language of Abyssinia. Gospel found in art history specialist Beatriz Plain in 1950. Books are decorated in the same style, but written in different handwritings. The first cover has gospel from wooden planks, coated gilded with copper, and the second cover is made of silver. Unfortunately, the book is not subject to restoration, and they are stored in the same monastery.
3. Codex Sinaiticus
The most ancient book, made in the usual modern inhabitant form - is the Codex Sinaiticus, dating back to IV century. The first piece of code was discovered in 1844 by accident by a German scientist Constantine Tischendorf in the Sinai Peninsula in the monastery of St. Helena. The sheets were lying in a pile of garbage destined for destruction. The researchers then found another 86 pages of code and took them to Europe, where he unveiled to the public. When Tischendorf again came to the monastery in search of continuation Code, the monks it even on the threshold is not allowed.
Saved the Emperor Alexander II. He paid 9000 rubles to the monastery, then Constantine Tischendorf was able to find and display a new page in the Russian Code. The Codex Sinaiticus contains the Old Testament, the full text of the New Testament, "Epistle of Barnabas" and the "Shepherd" of Hermas, written in Greek. With the coming to power of the Bolsheviks in 1933, the Code was sent to the British Museum.
4. Ostrom Gospel
The most ancient books of Russia considered Ostrom Gospel. It is written in the years 1056-1057 for the Novgorod mayor Ostromir deacon Gregory. Unique manuscript is decorated with initials and miniatures. In addition, the book is important because a deacon in the afterword have the date it was written from the foundation of the world. Ostrom Gospel became the model on which repelled scientists, creating the modern grammar of Old Church Slavonic. Today, the book is kept in the Russian National Library of St. Petersburg.
5. Diamond Sutra
Diamond Sutra represents nearly 5-meter roll printed xylographie method (imprint engravings). This book contains the text of the basics of Buddhism. Diamond Sutra was found by archaeologist Marc Stein in China in 1900 and exported to the UK. The book states that it is printed in the 15th number of the fourth moon of the year Syantun, t. E. May 11 868 years. Now the Diamond Sutra is kept in the British Library.