Diogenes: a crook or a philosopher?
The philosopher, who lived in a barrel and different cynical attitude towards others - that's the reputation of Diogenes, which he was happy to support. Shocking or allegiance to the dogmas of their own teachings - something to strive nature of the ancient Greek sage?
The fraudster or Cynic philosopher?
In any case, the fact that Diogenes existed in reality, there is no doubt.
He was born, apparently in 412, the city of Sinop in the family moneychangers Gikesiya. Apparently, Diogenes and his father was involved in a scandal involving falsification of coins or conduct other financial fraud. As a result, the future philosopher was expelled from the city. Some time Diogenes searched calling in life, until at some point, not met with Antisthenes, a philosopher who will be a teacher and a role model for Diogenes. These two names went down in history as the founders of Cynicism, teachings, in part based on the philosophy of Socrates.
Antisthenes, a disciple of Socrates, and after him Diogenes advocated the simplification of life up to the asceticism, calling to get rid of all superfluous and useless. Philosophers have not just avoided luxury - they have reduced the number of items belonging to them to just a few: the cloak that is worn in any weather; staff who could use walking and to protect it from attack; scrip, which piled alms. The image of the philosopher-scientist, with a beard, wallet, staff and cloak, many centuries used in the art initially have realized it was Antisthenes and Diogenes. They are the first cosmopolitan - citizens of the world.
In addition to the austerity Cynics proclaimed refusal to follow the dogmas - including religious and cultural, striving for self-sufficiency - a fully independent existence.
His teaching Antisthenes preached in Athens hill Kinosarg may, hence the name of this school of philosophy - Cynicism. According to another version, "Cynics" took its name from the Greek word "Kion" - dog: the habits of this particular animal philosophers have adopted a model of right living: should refer to the nature and simplicity, to disregard the conventions, to defend themselves and their way of life.
Marginal or an ascetic?
Diogenes really gave his dwelling in the vessel - but not in a barrel in the usual sense of the word, and in a large, life-size, amphora - pithoi. Pithos is widely used by the Greeks for the storage of wine, olive oil, beans and salt fish. Place their habitat Diogenes chose the main square of Athens, the agora, becoming a kind of landmark. He used to eat in public - that was considered indecent in the ancient Greek society, and other norms of behavior philosopher violated willingly and happily produced by the effect. Deliberate pursuit of marginal behavior has created a kind of Diogenes reputation for millennia, and in modern psychiatry is the case of Diogenes syndrome - related disease including extremely dismissive attitude to himself and the lack of shame.
Short stories from the life of Diogenes, are contained in the books of his namesake - Diogenes Laertius, and it is almost the only source of information about philosophy. Thus, according to these stories, anecdotes, Cynic liked to light a candle-lantern in broad daylight and go wander around the city in search of a man and, as a rule, are not found. Description of the same person, given by Plato - "a creature with two legs without feathers" - Diogenes ridiculed, showing plucked rooster, "man according to Plato." Plato did not stay in debt, calling Diogenes "Socrates, the survivors of the mind."
In an effort to continuously improve minimalist philosopher, and seeing once, as a boy drinking water, scooping up a handful of her, threw her cup of scrip. The other boy, the one who ate soup from a rotten loaf of bread, Diogenes prompted to get rid of the bowl.
A slave or a free man?
According to the preserved stories about Diogenes, he had a chance for a while to be a slave in certain Xeniades, which according to different versions whether philosopher freed immediately, paying his coaching in respect of their two sons, or left to live in their house on the family member's rights.
Obviously, a large part of life of Diogenes was held in Athens, but there is evidence of his life in Corinth, where he was Xeniades - life in the "barrel" by which Diogenes and did not think to give up.
When the philosopher Alexander the Great visited the commander, who ordered to move - "you overshadow me the sun." By the way, according to Laertius, Diogenes and Alexander died in one day - it was June 10 323 BC. e. According to some sources, the philosopher of death punish bury him face down.
Diogenes monument in his hometown of Sinope