Russian doctors inscribed in the history of science
XIX and XX century was the era of breakthroughs in medicine from the Russian and Soviet doctors. The names of many of our compatriots are inscribed in the history of science in letters of gold - and we have not even really thought about it. Many of them have literally opened up a new era in world medicine, becoming pioneers and founders of the first not-existing trends and changing their profession radically.
A legend of Russian surgery, no doubt, was the Pirogov - a child prodigy, a genius in adult life, people, besides the medical discoveries known that laid the foundation for medical education in the country women. He developed surgical techniques have allowed much less likely to resort to amputation (yes, before it is often not clear in any situation, just cut off the limb - as an alternative were sepsis, and death). Also he was the first in history began to conduct operations wounded in war soldiers and officers under ether anesthesia and entered the distribution system entering the hospitals of the wounded on the severity of the condition - both seriously increased survival, as well as set up in collaboration with the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna service the Sisters of Charity. In fact, the Pirogov considered the creator of a separate direction in surgery - martial.
Inventing dissect corpses frozen - that allows them to literally cut into layers, and therefore, to study more precisely - he created the first anatomical atlas, in which it was possible to look at the human body from the inside in three different projections. The atlas was indispensable in surgery before the invention of MRI and ultrasound.
Also, it Pirogov led plaster cast in the form in which it existed then the entire twentieth century (and perfectly still exists). Fixing bandages humanity knew long ago. Gypsum as a material with the first invented in Europe to use a Russian doctor of German ethnicity Carl Gibental and Pirogov significantly improved its overlay technique. It was yet another measure by which reduced the number of amputations in medical practice in Russia and abroad.
Soviet scientist experiments on transplanting a dog's head on another body of a dog to many internet users appear - judging by the comments under the description of the experiment - pure eccentricity scientist who wanted to shock the world, or having fun as he could. In fact, these experiments were of great importance for the development of trasplantologii and Demikhova name inscribed in the history of medicine of the twentieth century in golden letters.
In addition to the experiments with dogs, Vladimir Petrovich the world's first conducted operations such as mammary artery bypass grafting, the connection he developed the artificial heart, as well as the number of organ transplants (animal), and although these bodies do not like, the operations themselves helped develop vascular stapling technique in transplantations.
In 1960 Demihov wrote the world's first monograph on transplantology, which has long remained the only one of its kind - it was translated into several languages, operations, surgeons have learned of several countries and was carried out by it. South African doctor Christiaan Barnard, the world's first heart transplanted from one person to another, came to the USSR to study with the Russian genius.
This Russian doctor Moldovan origin is known not only by the fact that nurtured a generation of great surgeons, but also the fact that he was a pioneer in some areas - for the first time in modern medicine to apply a local anesthetic (which after the fall of ancient civilizations was forgotten) was the first to introduce disinfection of instruments and dressings before surgery. It literally opened a new era in surgery.
Sklifosovsky Very often remembered in connection with the achievements of military surgery, but actually Nikolai took up everything, including gynecological surgery, several improved techniques of their conduct.
As for the martial practice, Nikolai developed the principle of savings the treatment of gunshot wounds, proved that work with penetrating wounds of the chest should be performed on the front line, without having to send in the rear hospital, and has developed and described the principles of the transport of the wounded.
For a long time it was thought that the ethical way to a vaccine against typhus not create - the bacteria were live human cells are needed. Alexei V. managed to cultivate them in ... blood-sucking insects. He developed as a result in 1942 the vaccine was more relevant than ever - fever before was considered a must-have of the war and the Soviet army was very important to avoid non-combat losses. And the fighting was something terribly much.
Due to the fact that officials understand the importance of developing and Pshenichnova immediately launched production of the vaccine in several major institutions that threatened the Soviet Union and the Soviet army managed to prevent an epidemic of typhus. If we recall that Napoleon's army lost because of the typhus-third of the soldiers, and Kutuzov - half Pshenichnova work is more than impressive.
In addition to fever, the cities of the Volga during the Great Patriotic War threatened cholera. Fortunately, the question of cholera has long been engaged in the Soviet scientist Ermoleva. As a child, a girl from the Cossack village was struck by the story of Tchaikovsky's death, died of raw glass of water, and she decided to definitely defeat the terrible disease. During the research it even infected the cholera itself - and survived. She was then twenty-four years. When Ermoleva invited to work in Moscow, she arrived in the capital with a suitcase - and all of it was packed with five hundred tubes of cultures of cholera and cholera-like vibrio. This idea belongs Ermoleva water disinfection with chlorine in city water. In 1942, the Germans launched near Stalingrad Vibrio cholerae, to ease the city's defenders. In place urgently sent a group of Soviet scientists with Ermoleva - they carried out jointly developed bacteriophages, which should have been destroyed vibrio in water. But the train was hit by a bombing, and saving tubes were broken. Ermoleva in place urgently to make new drugs. Bacteriophage its production of distributed Stalingraders along with bread. It was the first ever created for the purpose of the besieged city of biological barrier against biological weapons also.
Russia is considered a pioneer in the field of mass women's higher medical education. And all thanks to the Russian physician Botkin. Back in the sixties, he began to prepare girls to enter the foreign medical universities, and in parallel sought for them the right to receive education in Russia. In 1874 he organized a school nurse, and in 1876 - "Women's medical courses"; with an eye on Russia, began to open higher medical education to women and other countries. Also Sergey opened hepatitis A and its viral nature - to him the disease was considered a consequence of the mechanical delay of bile.
Even a short list of pioneers from Russia would be incomplete without the legendary Russian Dr. Pavlov - he discovered the mechanisms of formation and extinction of conditioned reflexes, conducting experiments on dogs, and in fact created a new science - of higher nervous activity. Also, it was he who opened the sleep phase and created the theory of signaling systems of the body.
Outstanding Soviet psihiatressa Jewish origin, who worked in the Ukrainian and Russian clinics, was the pioneer of autistic spectrum disorder - although, for historical reasons (and some are likely due to some moral corruption of Austrian psychiatrist) in such a long time was considered Hans Asperger.
Grunya Efimovna entered the history of psychiatry that found regularities of the dynamics of schizophrenia developed evolutionary-biological concept of mental illness and made a lot more of this, for what it commemorated as one of the creators of children's clinical psychiatry.