Reconstruction of our history
• The reconstruction of our history
There are reports, that the opportunity to wait for years. Today this is the case. For five years I was looking for a way to study in detail the high-rise building on the waterfront Tinkers and hold the city with its spire shooting. Today, in front of another dream come true, I put a fat check! Gather a cup of coffee and watch the great reportage about the great and iconic buildings in Moscow.
The house, closing the prospect from the Kremlin to the mouth of the Yauza, was built as a city within a city. Authors of an ambitious project - and Chechulin Rostkowska. Dmitry Chechulin general is general among the architects of the Soviet period, he began to work under Stalin, and finished under Brezhnev. The hotel "Beijing", the White House, the hotel "Russia", the metro station "Komsomolskaya" (radial), "Okhotny Ryad", "Kiev" (radial), "Dynamo" and many other objects of Moscow - Chechulina projects.
It all started with the fact that in 1940 was built a 9-storey building, as an independent building, overlooking the Moscow River.
On the colored card late 50s shows a panorama of the charge-Kotelniki from the Kremlin. On Kotelniki gutted only the very wing of the house along the embankment of the Moskva River.
Here is a closer shot with Big Ustinsky bridge. Yes, once directly on the waterfront were power lines.
After the war, in 1952 was elevated to the height of the central volume of 176 meters and a 9-storey building was included in the new ensemble with a partial restructuring of the front facade.
After 60 years of high-rise building on Tinkers still visible from many points in Moscow. By right of this building it is one of the visiting cards of the city.
This is the third of the height of the Stalinist skyscraper (after Moscow State University and the hotel "Ukraine"). Built its prisoners, who lived nearby, in "Camp Division." This is the former concentration camp at Taganka. Oversaw the construction of the house Lavrenty Beria, he also insisted on the selection of the site for construction.
Lists of tenants claimed by Stalin himself. Therefore, the apartments were inhabited by all sorts of KGB workers, party and military leader, and the other part was well-known scientists, artists and writers.
A list of future tenants began to be still in the construction phase. "Our people will live in our house," - said the "leader of the people." But fully populate the house "our" was risky. Because of the perpetual intrigues skyscraper could comprehend the fate of the infamous House on the Embankment, where in the late thirties repressed many tenants. For heterogeneous composition one wing gave the military and the other - the people of art.
The apartments were rented to tenants "turnkey" - with the snow-white furniture in the kitchen, bronze lamps and imported fixtures.
The exact number of apartments in this house has always been a mystery. First, because of the secret agents who live in apartments without numbers, then because of the "new Russian", who massively bought and combined-severed apartment together.
Just building houses 700 apartments, shops, a library, a school, a kindergarten and a post office. There is also a cinema, Muscovites are well aware of it. In the old days people crammed here at the premiere of new films with Belmondo or Delon, and before someone just standing in line at the Jean Gabin or films of Akira Kurosawa.
Apartments in the house in Tinkers were the subject of the Soviet elite dreams of luxury amazing, and the house itself seemed inaccessible stronghold of life "luxury". Crystal chandeliers, ceiling moldings, parquet expensive, "Stalin" tiles - all this was a fixture of high-rise apartments in the Tinkers. In this house lived the Soviet elite with the highest population density of the "stars" per square meter.
The building has not just appeared in the domestic film "Moscow Does Not Believe in Tears", "Vacation crumble," "Jumble", "Brother 2", "Brigade", "Dandy" and many others.
At first I became very sad when he noticed that the building was covered in scaffolding and lifts. This meant that part of the beautiful angles of Moscow has been exposed to write-off due to unsightly appearance of one of the most significant sites of the city.
Before that, I tried several times to formally agree with the management company shooting the interiors of the building and, of course, access to the spire of Moscow for panoramic shooting. But, alas, to no avail. Due to the endless stream of Rufer, breaking in its path locks and doors, sending three letters concierges, because of the dozens of dismissed employees of security and control, all in vain. In one word photographer humans and mood changes abruptly ended in the time allotted for discussion.
"If the mountain will not come to Mohammed, then Mohammed goes to the mountain." Then came the day when I was invited as a photographer shoot the building renovation process and carried out in all the places where they used to say, "and even forget to think."
From the moment of putting the house has been more than 60 years. This is an impressive figure. In all the years the building has never been undertaken major repairs (except purchased the apartments). The photograph shows a fragment of fence roofs of underground garages. Like this, and even worse, most of the look at home improvement. Yes, it sounds unbelievable, but in the design of a building half a century ago, the architect was thinking about where the residents will put their cars!
According to the contractors of the work includes the repair of the foundation, repair basement and attic, sewerage, ventilation, heating and electricity. Also it carried out the restoration of reliefs and sculptural groups, outdoor floor lamps at the front door and spire with a star again carried landscaping of the adjacent territory. Not all targets are met, but the main scope of work is coming to an end.
So a week ago looked a central staircase skyscraper.
For the restoration of facades of external technical lifts were installed. It is a pity that did not find any solution for masking air-conditioning units.
View from the yard into the enclosure with the illusion.
View of skyscraper from the yard.
Five of the lower floors of the Stalinist skyscraper faced with granite and form a monumental plinth. All architectural elements, sculptural groups and obelisks are the restoration process.
One Soviet journal, dedicated to Soviet architecture paragraph about tenants of luxury homes has been written: "It is worth over Moscow river white stone house in which they live ordinary Soviet people - the workers and engineers, doctors, artists, architects and senior citizens ... It is impossible to imagine that somewhere somewhere in America, England, France, any capitalist country, the government built a building and have colonized its workers and specialists ... "
In fact, in this house lived the highest light of that era. Welcoming some Soviet scientists and artists, who with great difficulty can be attributed to the "ordinary worker". Where have you seen that in the homes of ordinary Soviet people made such high-reliefs and ornaments. Take into account a lot of details in the elaboration of sculptures, all people have the pupils, for emphasis. However, they are dressed in simple clothing workers.
The process of restoration of the sculptures on the right wing. They stood under the open sky 60 years, some fragments of figures cracked and crumbled. Sculpture been dismantled into parts (in the same sequence as designed) and transferred to a recovery shop.
In order to work in the winter the entire area of the sculptural group closed in a "warm loop", which supports the need for zero temperature.
The head is almost a meter in height. Clearly visible areas of the 60-year-old, and new, reconditioned. In any case, this is only an intermediate option.
The sculptures on the main body are ready.
To scale in the lower left corner of the sitting man.
And then on the left also has a climber. Photos not easy to convey the size and monumentality of the building and its elements. it looks far less seriously from the ground.
Ceiling is unique and leaves a lasting impression in the mind of everyone who passes or passes by it, it is still surprising for its size and power of the incarnation. Three low towers and side wings of the building organically fit into the overall architecture of the streets and pouring into a difficult terrain at the confluence of the Moskva River and the Yauza.
Working with views of the Kremlin.
Move to the entrances to the five-meter ceilings ...
The front door of the housing B.
Restoration of the ceiling.
is not just a building but a whole era of the museum. As the station of the Moscow subway.
History under your feet.
Now I do not work all the elevators. Part of elevator shafts completely rebuilt.
So before the central entrance hall looked. Interestingly, as if he would also look after reconstruction ...
One of the staircases.
This is the entrance in the side housings. Everything here is more modest than in the center.
Railings and fences for decades covered by endless layers of paint. All of this was stripped and restored.
Deli in the housing A. Once all of Moscow went here for sausage. After the reconstruction here will shop again. Also in the house was the legendary bakery, which is so like to remember the locals.
Despite the hard times of the nineties, when there was no concierge entrances, and the people are screwed and shoot everything that fell under the arm, to the present day survived some native parts and fragments of decoration.
List of apartments in one of the elevators.
The composition of residents allowed home on Tinkers long time to occupy an important place in Moscow and first of all Stalin's skyscrapers.
Over the years in this house lived the star of Soviet cinema and theater. Faina Ranevskaya, who starred in over 30 films and played dozens of roles in the theater told the story of her settlement. As that time, the actress, who at that time already 70 years old, asked a young KGB operative with the aim to recruit actress. And as it should be according to the instructions he held her thin and delicate discussion on the work of foreign agents in the Soviet Union, about the scarcity of top agents in the KGB, and the duty of every honest citizen to help his country.
In response, he heard the bright monologue Faina, in which it expressed its full readiness to cooperate, and that the only obstacle in this field is the fact that she lived in a communal apartment and talking in his sleep. A month after this conversation, Faina Ranevskaya spread a tablecloth in the kitchen in a new apartment in a high-rise building on the waterfront Tinkers. After a month in the public security organs acted denunciation in which the tenants expressed concern about the behavior of a certain actress, living in their home. - "She cries at night on the flight of the anti-imperialist threat and its capability to destroy all enemy agents, after she had become a freelancer KGB."
After such a letter bold cross was put on Ranevskaya. As it turned out, that the accusation she wrote herself and persuaded a local locksmith to carry it to the appropriate authorities of the two bottles of vodka.
Ranevskaya neighbors were Mordjukova Nonna Clara Lucko, actress Marina Ladynina with spouse filmmaker Ivan Pyrevym poet Alexander Twardowski, writer Paustovsky, and many other well-known intellectuals. The architect Dmitry Chechulin also lived in this house on the waterfront.
Part of the doors in the apartment have been preserved in its original form. In the nineties and two thousandth current tenants have tried to replace the door on something more difficult and impassable. Now, on the contrary, the fashion restore native doors.
We met with Valentina Kibalnikova that most of his life lived in this house. Valentina - granddaughter of the famous Soviet sculptor Alexander Pavlovich Kibalnikova.
- We lived in the central section on the 7th floor. They were amazing times. The doors to the apartment is never locked, the children ran to each other's homes uninvited, like a home, and in the elevator lobby malyshnya to ride a bicycle and play catch-up. Everywhere was a children's chatter and laughter.
- Sometimes, when the holidays began meeting in the apartment Bugrimova (known to the whole world tamer lions). Then we move on to our main courses. At the chemist Ryabchikova drank tea, and then on the ground near the elevators arranged dances. In this house lived the happiest people ...
- After another trip to come home, and stenochku already chattering - are invited to the dinner. - In the hall on the first floor of a large Christmas tree was decorated and arranged New Year's. Now this, of course not. Many residents do not even know who lives next door.
But the hero of these stories Valentina Kibalnikova. A great thank you to her, health and long life!
In the body, "B" on the second floor of the twelve years lived great ballerina Galina Ulanova. Once she slipped on the smooth tiles in the elevator lobby and nearly sprained his leg. It is terrible to imagine what a bad leg for a ballerina. She agreed with the management company, and she was replaced on the 6th floor tiles to slip. Actually, this tile in a photo in the foreground, and my own, more gray in the center (to the side of the apartment).
In 2004, in the apartment number 185 Galina Ulanova Museum was opened, which saved the situation and gathered her belongings.
The museum consists of four rooms with modest furnishings. It survived a huge mirror for regular workouts. Dancer, despite his age and state of health, every day spent at the bench for a few hours. Favorite chair to read in the same place. In the bedroom, on the couch warm terry blanket and on the nightstand next to points. In the hallway is like a forgotten umbrella, and in the locker room in the demi-season coat cell. By rooms carefully arranged small details that create the comfort of home. One gets the impression that it is necessary to wait and Halina will be back to his apartment after a brilliant performance at the Bolshoi Theater.
The library has about 2,400 books, many - with inscriptions.
According to the original plan of the newly minted residents had to show by example the modern rational way of life on this, in particular, say details like surprises many visitors plan kitchen: small apartments, where their area of more than 6-8 m2. The fact that the creators of the project plan in the house must have existed a common dining-restaurant hotel-type - to save time and effort of residents, and self-catering apartments in implied, for example, tea or coffee or relaxing culinary experience. However, this project was not destined to be realized.
Great view from the window. And this is only 6th floor!
Today's actors are also happy to buy a house in a residential building on the waterfront Tinkers. Renata Litvinova is adjacent to an actor, musician and showman Dmitry Nagiyev. Actor and writer Efim Shifrin even a book called "Diary Kotelnik."
Prices for apartments in high-rise located on an inaccessible for the average citizen level, and tens of millions of rubles. But it also happens that some of the apartments are idle for years without tenants - sometimes rich people are buying real estate in this building as an investment.
Recently, attention is drawn to the high-rise news that the number of apartments purchased by Igor Shuvalov. The local course is also discussed, but some such event did not surprise: there is a person who has made a huge fortune back in the 90's in business can afford to buy these apartments. How many residents were in Kotelniki ... But today's post Shuvalov and political battles endure quite an ordinary event to another level of discussion.
There are rumors that the entire reconstruction of the historical building ventured on this occasion. Probably Shuvalov has apartments and the Foreign Ministry - won him a couple of years reconstruct even the steeple dismantled. And other high-rises planned repaired, but Internet experts in reality probably be boring.
Talking about the steeple. Here is the ladder to the platform with the base of the spire. The walls of this narrow staircase repainted several times. This is well illustrated by colored tracks. But this time the color is not on top of what has been, and special chemistry remove all layers of old paint, and paint again. In the photo the result of regular cleaning.
A spiral staircase in the steeple.
And here it is, the long-awaited bonus. It has long been my dream to get here.
City views I diluted stories of the building, it was too good they are)
He lived in high-rise composer Nikita V. Theology ( "The Dark Night", "scows full of mullet", "favorite city", "Lizaveta"). He was a great joker. His favorite pastime was to bring their neighbors, fellow-composers to a heart attack. One composer Anatoly Novikov ( "Darkie", "Ah, the road ...") late in the evening wanted to enjoy Moscow. But going to the window, he suddenly noticed on the side of the Theological Nikita, pale as death, dressed in sheets, ominous howling. Floor was low, but not low. Novikov recoiled in horror from the windows, and there continued to howl: "Oh-oo-oo! Wah-oo-oo! "
Plucking up courage, Novikov went to the window and saw that the theological standing in the lift basket for work at height. One of ten agreed with the operator roll the fool.
Another time our joker called the composer Dmitri Shostakovich, and altered voice announced that the call to him from the intelligence, and the agents brings that night robbery happen in his apartment. Burglars are expected to be disguised as doctors. Shostakovich, of course, called the police, and she ambushed. Late at night in the ambulance bell rang, and in a tearful voice said that the great composer Shostakovich bad. Well, of course, the doctors arrived on a call, where they were screwed together.
Theological morning repented himself turned himself, and pay a fine for a false call, and disorderly conduct.
One of Theology invented frivolous joke-riddle: "In our house, in an apartment nine laureates are sleeping in the same bed. Who is it?"
Guests were at a loss and build explicit assumptions. "Pyrev with Ladynina!" - rather rubbed his hands composer, after hearing all the naughty version. For two, the actress and the director really was 9 State Prize.
The sharp-tongued composer loved to tease and on the other his stellar neighbor - actress Faina Ranevskaya. "Hey, old woman!" - on the whole court composer he cried at the sight of the actress. Ranevskaya angry. Intelligent "Greetings, my great neighbor" from the lips of another neighbor, the poet Alexander Twardowski, liked it a lot more.
Twardowski often came to Ranevskaya's just like that, in my own way. Began their neighborhood gatherings with little embarrassment: somehow Twardowski forgot the keys, and had servants born in the country. Then Tvardovsky unbearably wanted to use the toilet. I had to knock to the famous neighbor. Then poet said actress several hours. "Come again, my closet door is always open to you!" - a friendly goodbye Ranevskaya. She lived on the second floor, above the cinema "Illusion" and the bakery. "Over the bread and circuses" - as she joked Ranevskaya.
What are your favorite quotes Ranevskaya:
"People like candles or lit, or in their ass."
"I'd sent you, but I see - you're out!"
Inviting guests neighbors, Ranevskaya said:
- If the call does not work, knock down.
- Why do feet Faina?
- Well, not with empty hands as you'll come to me!
The house is rightfully considered safe for residents and inaccessible to thieves. At the entrances to the early days were the concierge, which for those times was rather unique phenomenon in the elevators day and night watchmen were on duty. Residents of apartments left to safely open, briefly leaving to visit his no less stellar neighbors. But once there was a daring robbery. December 30, 1981 came into the entrance of a group of men with a huge fluffy Christmas tree and festive box.
- This is from the "State Circus", - explained the man, - told to leave the apartment tamer Irina Bugrimova!
Duty allowed. Uninvited guests did not return. The woman ran to the apartment star tamer. Tree standing in the open door. The couriers went out the back door, carrying a unique collection Bugrimova diamonds. Many of the exhibits from this collection were listed in the catalogs.
Old residents of high-rise like to tell newcomers that driving a nail into the wall, you can stumble upon a skeleton - supposedly working unloved walled superintendent. Persistence of such legends connected with the fact that the building was built prisoners. They say that they were the same and models for a variety of patriotic bas-reliefs, sculptural groups and a variety of shapes that adorn the building and on the windows of some apartments you could even find a "message", clumsily scratched with a nail.
"was built by the prisoners" - argue that this inscription is in the apartment of the writer Vasily Aksenov.
When building the same type of apartment is equipped with the same type and are processed the same, except for some minor details.
, the walls and ceilings, furniture in the kitchen and bathrooms, chandeliers and sconces - everything was the same. Move, much less change their residents is strictly prohibited. Since the location of certain elements of the interior was determined not so much convenience for residents, as a convenience for listening.
Chechulin architect was unusual for his time. He was not afraid to check the orders of Stalin himself expediency. Stalin's skyscrapers in fact, planned to build at seven and eight. Last, the highest, was to stand right next to the Kremlin (right in the picture). But Chechulin well aware, as disfigure and set off the center of Moscow, and pulled, hesitated with the construction, I reject all offers. And held up to the fact that "Russia" hotel was built in place of the high-rise. Today, in its place a park Zaryadye built.
Well, that Chechulin for its position is not paid for a period, but only those that got an apartment in his own child is not on a high floor as he wanted to see the whole city from there, but only on the ground floor. In any case, he designed the magnificent building!
Incredibly, if you've read this post until the end of ...
Separately, I want to thank Anatoly Ryabov few days of filming, tours and support, Valentina Kibalnikova for your time and interesting history. Well, it should be noted the work of the complex urban and overhaul. All the same, this building - the heritage of our city, our history. And it should be protected.