Who but the mask makes no attempt to connect the brain with the computer
Learn to shoot, play Tetris "power of thought" and defeat Alzheimer's disease - why create neural interfaces
The American billionaire Elon Musk (№80 in the global ranking of billionaires, according to Forbes, the state of $ 13, 9 billion) was one of the founders of Neuralink medical research company, which will deal with technology "neural lace," wrote a March 28 newspaper The Wall Street Journal.
The publication notes that in the future the technology will allow people to communicate directly with machines without a physical interface. Musk also said earlier that "the neural lace" can help a person does not become a "house cat" for artificial intelligence, resembles Business Insider. In an interview with Vanity Fair Musk said that the need for the emergence of the importance of such an interface "about four or five years."
The new draft of a businessman talking on the establishment of a network of electrodes, which are implanted in the head, in order to collect data generated by the human brain, or vice versa upload them there. Technology will be used for the treatment of serious diseases, including epilepsy and severe depression.
Broadly Musk decided to take the neural interface or a brain-computer interface - technology "brain - computer", which provide data transfer between the human brain and an external device (eg, a computer). These technologies, first of all, try to apply in medicine to enhance or restore cognitive or sensory-motor functions of man. They also allow you to control objects "power of thought" and can be used, for example, in the gaming industry, industry or the military sphere. Above the creation of such systems for the exchange of information between the brain and the electronic device is working, not only the head of Tesla and SpaceX. The gallery Forbes we remember only a few projects in this area: some of them are only at the stage of the project a secret, and some have already successfully entered the market.
Enhance the ability of the human brain tends startup Kernel, created by the founder of the payment system and Braintree former partner Mask by PayPal Brian Johnson in 2016. The businessman has invested in it $ 100 million at the start. The businessman stated that seeks long-term growth target of intelligence and the quality of human life against the backdrop of increasing its duration.
In August last year, Kernel announced the start of development of an implantable device designed to improve memory and learning ability in people with relevant disabilities.
The concept of the device is based on research neyrotehniki director of the Center at the University of Southern California Theodore Berger, who until recently held the position of the supervisor of the company. During the 20-year-old laboratory experiments it recorded the electrical activity of hippocampal neurons in the perception of the information and converting it from short-term memory to long-term. Hippocampus - part of the brain that plays a key role in the processes of memorizing and formation mechanisms of emotion.
According to the draft, "neuroprosthesis", a microprocessor, via electrodes implanted into the hippocampus to record a message from the sensing signals of neurons, process them and stimulate neurons responsible for the transformation of information in the long-term memories. The device, according to the authors of the project is to help people with Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia, as well as patients who have experienced a stroke or brain injury. The scientific council startup composed of experts from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard Medical School, Stanford, New York, Columbia and Northwestern University. The researchers have conducted successful tests of stimulation storing in rodents and primates.
Halo Neuroscience sells special headphones for athletes - Halo Sports. At the time of a training device worn on the head like headphones and transmits weaker electric pulses into the motor cortex of the brain. The company argued that this stimulation allows athletes to quickly absorb some motor skills. Co-founder Dan Chao pointed out that through the use of devices in training athletes show the best results in the competition.
Technology companies have recently become interested in, and the US military. Thus, the experimental unit of defense innovation US Department of Defense signed a contract with the company to create a system of accelerated learning and rapid training of snipers fighting men. This was announced in the summer of last year, the then US Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter.
Details of the contract were not disclosed. We only know that the development of the system will be carried out within the framework of an ambitious program for the expansion of human capabilities. Asked by journalists about the ethical side "penetrate into someone's brain" - even "non-invasive" - to change the mental processes, Carter said that such technology in the future "will be used for healthy and sick people." US Secretary emphasized that the task of the US armed forces - to ensure the protection of American citizens, keeping up with technology development in this area.
Interest in the study of the human brain works and neyronetu or Web 4.0, where the interaction of the participants will take place with the help of brain-computer interface, originated in Russia. In 2016 a project called CoBrain (Connected Brain) was launched in the country through the National Technology Initiative aimed at the creation of new conservation technologies and expansion of the human brain resources. The amount of expenses for him for three years will amount to 450 million rubles, of which 300 million rubles in the project will receive from the budget.
On the basis of this infrastructure it is planned to create a system engineering, patenting and business acceleration, which will contribute to the emergence of hundreds of start-ups in the field of Neurotechnology. Authors of the project hope that all this will attract significant venture capital investments in this segment.
Total in Russia, according to the draft, 10 development centers Neurotechnology will be created until 2018, which brought together more than 40 laboratories that will provide interdisciplinary research and help collect information into a single knowledge base.
In CoBrain hope that the results of the project "will be needed by all categories of the population: both healthy and sick people," as opposed to foreign projects, which are aimed "at the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases of the nervous system" and affect, according to the project, only 5-10%.
Building 8 in Facebook
Facebook secret unit called Building 8 is engaged in the development of at least four hardware projects, including the creation of augmented reality devices and drones, wrote edition of Business Insider in March. According to the newspaper, one of the projects As for the development of brain scanning technologies. This direction is headed by a former neuroscientist John Hopkins, who previously participated in the development of a prosthetic arm controlled by the brain. The curator of the project is the former head of the Office of Advanced Research Projects US Department of Defense (DARPA) Regina Dugan. She also directed the department "Innovative technologies and projects" (ATAP) at Google, involved in the development of innovative technologies, to April 2016, until she was lured Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg (№5 in the global ranking of billionaires, according to Forbes, the state $ 56 billion). Working at Google since 2012, Dugan, in particular, was responsible for the creation of technology to build 3D-model space using a smartphone (Tango Project).
The Facebook declined to comment on the topic. At the same time, it seems, the company "does not consider the Building 8 as a hobby," the newspaper notes. Announced in April last year to establish a hardware-divisions - Building 8, Facebook clarifies that investment in its launch amount to hundreds of millions of dollars.
In another Russian project, launched in the framework of the National in 2016, the technology initiative, planned to create a system for communication between people with severe speech and movements, cognitive performance. Meet the participants a special social network will be using the interface on the basis of devices "brain-computer".
"The unique technology (ergonomic neyrointerfeysnogo complex), will allow people with disabilities to communicate among themselves, with relatives, medical staff, and the whole world", - said at the project site. The project is for three years will receive 133 million rubles, more than half of the funds will come from the federal budget.
Hardware and software system, developed under the project, includes neyrogarnituru "Garant-EEG" and a special interface "ergost" implemented on a user's computer, it is specified in the description. The headset registers the patient's neurophysiological parameters and transforms his thoughts into commands for a computer keyboard or other actuators. "With the translation of mental choice of a particular character in a real set of characters on the screen, one letter-by-letter can type text effortless voice and movements" - the developers promise. According to them, a special user interface will speed up the process of intellectual and typing "online broadcast will take place on the companion language." Thus, the social network "will not have language barriers and will be available around the world."
Among the players in the entertainment neyrointerfeys, you can pay attention to the Emotiv Systems, founded in 2003, for the development of brain-computer interface electronics based on electroencephalography (EEG). The company has released a gaming peripherals Emotiv Epoc (priced from $ 299 to $ 799 depending on the version), which is a headset you can control and influence on the game of thought and expression the player faces.
The device is equipped with two gyroscopes and 14 electrodes, which record and transmit brain frequency, muscle contraction, and even movement of the head over a wireless connection to a computer. In the future, as calculated in the company, the technology could be used on other platforms, such as the console.
First headset required "trained" to recognize what the mind must conform to a specific action. You can then navigate to the different training programs. The review unit on Geektimes one of the users said that using the device, you can, for example, to train the concentration, playing "the game of the Jedi" and pulling "his fighter out of the mire by force", like Luke from the saga "Star Wars." The device also allows you to play tetris, by moving or turning the falling figures, "the power of thought." In March, scientists from the Korea Advanced Institute of Technology (KAIST) also used the Emotiv Epoc headset remote control turtle movement by human thought. Description of the work on the use of brain-computer interface techniques in conjunction with a device that sends commands from the computer's brain was published in the Journal of Bionic Engineering magazine.