Many have heard the popular notion of "offshore" as used in the context of saving money, but few people know that he was for many centuries. Even in ancient times traders laundered money using various tweaks and tricks. How to do business with other countries and stay "in profit" - later in the review.
offshored ancient world
Phoenician traders unload goods in the Mediterranean port.
In ancient Greece, as in our days, the authorities charged with merchants taxes. The Athenians took 2 percent of the value of all goods entering the city or in transit: port fees from vessels, the poll tax from foreigners, slaves and women of easy virtue. Wishing to trade in the local markets also shell out a tidy sum.
convoy. Fresco Minoan civilization on. Santorini (Greece).
Final spending was so great that trade with Athens, a major metropolis, to foreigners has become unprofitable. To avoid paying taxes, Greek and Phoenician merchants avoided the 30-kilometer zone around the city. They founded their own free warehouses to store goods on a tiny island, and then transporting contraband.
to Coins of Ancient Greece.
Rhodes was the first major offshore company in history. After a time, wanting to enrich themselves, the government and there imposed a two-percent tax on exports and imports. The result was the opposite: the city lost most of the turnover. Enterprising merchants have moved to a different location - on the island of Delos.
Ancient Greek amphora in the form in which they are transported by sea.
The medieval trade in
Portrait of George Giza, Hanseatic merchant from Danzig. Hans Holbein, 1532.
The economy of medieval Europe is closely linked with the merchants of Venice, Genoa, Livorno, Trieste, the Hanseatic League. Port city on the Mediterranean coast and the Adriatic Sea, the Baltic and North Seas have developed rapidly, thanks to the liberal trade policies of local authorities.
The base of the Hanseatic League.
One of the most significant examples - Hansa. This association of guilds of merchants in the XII-XVII centuries., Who together led the case and sought preferences among European monarchs. Nearly three hundred cities have created favorable conditions for "their" and merchants grew rich from this. The office of the Hanseatic League was in Novgorod, Koningsberge (of Kaliningrad), Reval (Tallinn), Riga
Another way to successful trading - participation in fairs. It was a landmark event for the medieval society, because then even foreign merchants do not pay taxes.
Pirates Captain Kidd in Madagascar.
The great maritime powers in the XVI-XVIII centuries encouraged maritime piracy, calling it a privateering. Filibusters used to undermine trade and opponents of the economy. But at one point the situation got out of control. Pirates unbelted and possessed profit, began to "work" on themselves. Bases of pirates and smugglers in Panama, on the Cayman and Virgin Islands used to store the loot. Here, in the absence of monitoring, conducted numerous shady deals.
offshored New Times
Control wine trade guild. Ferdinand Pain, 1680.
In the era of modern times have developed a free port. It seaports, where the laws of free trade act, import and export of goods.
The Odessa trading port.
In the Russian Empire in Porto Franco were Odessa, Batumi, Vladivostok, Theodosius, the mouth of the Ob and Yenisei. With the introduction of free trade Odessa for five years, almost caught up with St. Petersburg in terms of turnover. Such cities rapidly grew rich, but then manifest shortcomings of the system. Cheap imports destroying local industries, intensified corruption, smuggling, informal economy.
vessel reconstruction of the Dutch East India Company Halve Maen.
Preferential taxation and received many British colonies, which contributed to their development. In Europe, the same pattern emerged offshore in Luxembourg, Liechtenstein and Switzerland. It was at last developed the concept of financial secrecy when monetary contribution the owner's name was carefully hidden. Due to this, in a small country began to flow money from around the world.
The Spanish silver coins and the Dutch golden ducats.
At all times, savvy marketers "make money" by any means necessary.