Ancient manor of Moscow
Unfortunately, the fate of most of the old mansions of Moscow and its surroundings is very sad - during the revolution and after they have been destroyed and looted. But among them there are those who have survived in their original form, thus preserving the historical memory of their creators and owners. And now these old mansions are the real treasures of the capital city, because here all "breathes" a long history. We walk through some of them ...
"Noble Nest cherished alley.
The Forgotten Garden. Poluzarosshy pond.
As well as the familiar to all! ...
Darkened night. Almost hear the murmur of leaves.
For a little grove lit moon enamel.
And in the hearts of young sadness arises.
And I hear someone's strange, sad whisper.
Some people in this hour of something unfortunate "(KD Balmont)
"In 1917 began the agony ... Deserted house, white columns collapsed. Parks track overgrown with grass ... Lions Gate shabby and shapeless pieces have fallen ... In a huge necropolis founded ten years. In it - the culture of the century. ... And there is the necropolis on the headstone. "AN Grech" Crown Estate "
But let's not talk about sad things ...
Whereas previously, many estates were built a few miles from the city, but now they came within the city, and became part of the capital, its city parks.
Kuzminki, one of the largest estates - the most interesting landscape and architectural ensemble of Moscow.
The history of the estate, whose age is more than 300 years, is associated with such famous names as Baron Stroganov and Prince Golitsyn. At the end of a huge English park was the 18th century here, the very first landscape park in Moscow, is looked after by about 300 gardeners and designers. And many of them were discharged from abroad. the biggest part of the estate was allotted for this park.
The peculiarity of the English park is that it creates the illusion of the natural world, as if you are in the woods.
English park Hood. I. Rauch
This park is impossible to mess up, it can only be cut down, so it is even today still pleases its visitors.
In the early 19th century, the owner of the estate, Prince Sergey Golitsyn, it undertook a fundamental reorganization that he managed well.
Portrait of Prince SM Golitsyn. Hood. VATropinin
Sophisticated style renovation of buildings and a grand park with a landscaped area only fascinated his contemporaries. No wonder it became known as the Moscow Pavlovsk or Russian Versailles.
JH Rauch. View of the manor house from the pond
Golitsyn owned iron foundry, and they were cast for the estate jewelry real masterpieces - unique gates, fences, benches, figures of lions and griffins. Also on the estate monuments to Peter I, Maria Feodorovna were installed and Nicholas I.
Unfortunately, not preserved in its original form the main building of the estate Golitsyn, which burned down in 1916 on the old foundation built new in 1930.
The manor house today
Sheremetevs, being very rich people, were one of the first among the Moscow nobility, who in the 18th century got a summer country residence. Designed for receptions and balls, it differed luxury and pomp. Construction was carried out on the projects of the best architects of the time - Karl Blank and Yuri Kologrivov. Major works were carried out here under Peter Borisovich Sheremetev.
The basis of this beautiful manor house is perfectly preserved French park with ponds, covering an area of over 30 hectares. Decorate its numerous marble sculptures and original pavilions.
Moscow nobles liked to come to the Sheremetev, sometimes the number of visitors reached 30,000. Guests here were always happy, and for them there were "countless Joy and amenities," I was in the estate and its own theater, which rivaled even with the emperor.
The architectural complex of the estate consists of the Palace, the two houses of the Italian and Dutch, pavilions - "Grotto", "Orangerie", "Hermitage" and the Church of the Merciful.
The magnificent palace, built of wood, has retained its original layout and rich interior. On top of the tree palace is plastered and painted in a delicate pink color.
The most unusual building in Kuskovo is the Hermitage, two-story building with an elevator.
Here Count Nikolai Sheremetev, son of Peter Borisovich, often met with his favorite, the serf actress Praskovya Zhemchugovoy, a love story which is known to many. The servants on the ground floor was served to them on the table and sent it up the elevator. Subsequently, the count married Praskovya, and she became a full-fledged mistress of the manor.
Count Nikolai Sheremetev
Kolomenskoye Manor, located in the south of the capital, it is spread over a huge territory of 390 hectares. There is an extensive park overlooking the embankment of the Moskva River, there is an untouched virgin forest. Kolomenskoye is famous and its famous gardens, in addition there remain Peter oaks whose age reaches 600 years. According to legend, under the shadow of the young Peter was trained to read and write, the future Emperor of Russia.
Gardens in Kolomenskoye
Kolomenskoye has long served as a fiefdom of Moscow rulers, especially loved to visit here Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. During his reign, it was brought here from all over the country's unique ancient wooden buildings. For myself Alexis erected in Kolomenskoye bright and colorful wooden palace-tale of the 270 rooms, which many contemporaries called the eighth wonder of the world.
In 1775 Catherine II commissioned the architect Vasily Bazhenov to build a royal residence here. Dilapidated by the time the wooden palace of Alexei Mikhailovich was dismantled and in its place built a new one, which is also not preserved. However, to complete the work, extending over several years, we did not have time. In connection with the transfer of the capital to St. Petersburg court moved to St. Petersburg, finance the construction has virtually stopped and the estate began to fall into disrepair.
In 1990, work began on the restoration of the estate, its architectural monuments. By surviving drawings even managed to restore the famous palace of Alexei Mikhailovich. And now, under the open sky here it is a veritable museum of wooden architecture.
Palace of Alexey Mikhailovich
Construction work on the construction of a residence for Catherine II began here in the 70 years of the 18th century. To the Empress attracted famous architect Vasily Bazhenov, they approve the plan for the future of the estate, which was drawn up taking into account all its wishes. After 10 years, when the construction of the manor was like the end of Catherine II I came to look for work and was dissatisfied with it. Bazhenov was removed, and to finish building the residence had a different architect Matvey Kazakov. But after the Empress died, all work was stopped.
It was only in the 90s of the last century began radical restoration of the estate, which ended in 2007. However, many buildings have been restored practically from the ruins. Now the palace and park ensemble of the Tsarina - a beautiful vacation spot of the capital with a magnificent palace, reminiscent of a fairytale castle, a beautiful park and the famous Tsaritsynskaya ponds ...