Ivan Susanin: hero or not
Ivan Susanin - a national hero, a symbol of "peasant" loyalty to the king. For four centuries, his name and the legend of the miraculous rescue of the first sovereign of the Romanov became part of the folklore.
How did you hear?
The history of the feat of Ivan Susanin to the beginning of the XIX century, his descendants passed from mouth to mouth. The general public learned about it only in 1812, with the release of the story of the writer Sergei Nikolaevich Glinka in the journal "Russian Gazette".
Later, it is on this publication are based play "Ivan Susanin" and the famous opera by Mikhail Glinka "Life for the Tsar". Glinka Ivan Susanin told about the history of the case.
In 1613, the expulsion of the Poles from Moscow, and their gang looted in the inner regions of Russia. In February this year, the Zemsky Sobor in Moscow proclaimed king, and, moreover, in absentia, Mikhail Romanov.
But the Mikhail Fedorovich was at this time in their ancestral lands in the Kostroma region, and one of the Polish gangs decided to destroy it. But where to find him, the Poles did not know.
Arriving in the village Domnino, they met a peasant Ivan Susanin and decided he had to elicit where dwells the newly elected king. But Susanin, having seen that the Poles want to kill the young emperor, not only told the truth, but also led the way in the opposite direction. On the way, he went into his house and quietly sent his little son to the king, to warn him of the danger. Having got the Poles into an impassable thicket, Ivan Susanin said:
"Villains! Here is my head; do with me what you want; Who you are looking for, that you do not get! ".
After that, the Poles hacked swords hero, but they get out of the thicket and the king could not be saved.
in-law, heir to
History Ivan Susanin 200 years has found new details of a literary nature. Naturally, the dying words of Ivan Susanin Glinka invented himself. Many of the details, he added in a story about Susanin "for effect". But exactly what these were the details? What do we really know about Ivan Susanin?
Something can be assumed. For example, that Susanin was a widower, and he had a daughter, and that he inherited.
The royal charter, this November 30, 1619 (a unique and very early source of the existence of the Kostroma peasant) son-Ivan Susanin Bogdan Sabinin granted half of the village with a "whitewash" from all taxes and duties "for his service to us, and the blood, and for your patience ... ".
There is no doubt that such a document could only be a recognition of the great achievements of the family before the king.
Some suggested that the mother Susanin named Susanna, and he was the village elder are more speculation. But patronymic Susanin - Osipovich, was coined by historians already in the XIX century and is not supported by any documents.
However, the fact that the king came down to a simple peasant, and two more in Moscow confirmed the privileges are exempt from taxes, in 1633 and 1691 years is noteworthy.
In the story of Glinka, compared with the text reading and writing, there are two main fictional story. The first - the son of Susanin. As we know, his daughter inherited Antonida (including royal privileges), which was only possible in the absence of male offspring. But the son could have died in the past? Studies show (Velizhev, Lavrynovych) is not. Back in 1731 the descendants of Susanin attempt was made to enter into the story of the rescue of the king of another relative - Antonida future husband. He was allegedly sent Susanin warn about the danger of the king.
However, this fiction did not believe, and a petition (which was designed to obtain greater benefits) is not approved. Thus, both the son and the son-in-Susanin did not exist and were added to the legend of the king of the rescue later. The same can be said about that Susanin led the Poles in the thicket (or swamp). In the documents of the XVII century, it is known only that Susanin did not give the location of the king, and the romantic episode with the deaf sites was added later.
Ivan Susanin and DNA
In the early 2000s, in the press there were several reports of the discovery of the tomb of Ivan Susanin. Archaeologists have based their hypothesis on the fact that on several skeletons, found during excavations near the village Domnino, traces of blows cold weapons were found, possibly saber.
However, they are based on the hypothesis that Susanin was buried, that also has to be proved.
Forensic doctors who have studied the remains have been found, although many have noted similarities in the structure of anthropometric found skeletons and the descendants of Susanin in 8 - 15 generations, declined to uniquely identify the most likely of the skeleton.
Fate was to decide DNA analysis of bones, but the study did not produce any positive results reliable.
Ivan Susanin XX century
However, we can hardly doubt that the feat of Ivan Susanin was coined. Documented examples of such behavior are well known in the country's history. The most famous is the farmer Matvey Kuzmin feat winter of 1942. In the area of his village in the Pskov region battalion of the German 1st Mountain Division would like to make a bypass position of the Soviet troops. As a conductor Germans chose the 83-year-old Matthew Kuzmin. However, one caused by conduct detachment quietly sent 11-year-old grandson of Sergei (it was not the invention of the later narrators) to the location of Soviet troops and handed over him the time and place of ambush.
At the appointed time Matvey Kuzmin led the Germans on the position of the Soviet gunners. This story was transmitted to the Soviet Information Bureau, and Matvey Kuzmin was posthumously awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.
At the same time, if he Matvey Kuzmin about Ivan Susanin barely knew - Pskov hunter was probably illiterate. Well, if you knew it, too, it is not surprising. In Russia, as well as later in the USSR, the feat of Ivan Susanin was widely used in mass propaganda. Glinka's opera "A Life for the Tsar" changed its name to "Ivan Susanin", a patriotic image of Kostroma peasant turned writers, artists, poets and throughout the XIX and XX centuries. About the real Ivan Susanin, we know very little, but more than any other peasant of the time. Its existence is documented, even by his silence he accomplished the feat, and did not give the young Mikhail Romanov, who hunted the Poles.