Regions of modern Russia, where the route of the Great Silk Road passed
The legendary trade route, crossroads of civilizations, connecting thread between the West and the East - the Great Silk Road. Its history began more than 2000 years ago, and the route has never been the same. Born and died state changes of power, conflicts broke out, and the merchants had to find new safe roads.
Thus, in the VIII-X centuries, due to the political instability in the south of the caravans with goods went along the northern coast of the Caspian Sea - Black Sea through the city, the North Caucasus, the lower reaches of the Don and Volga. It played a major role in the formation of the ancient Russian state - the development of trade contributed to the growth of large cities. The story behind the regions of modern Russia, the territory is crossed by routes of the Silk Road.
The ancient trading town of Hersonissos rustled on the shore of the Black Sea for hundreds of years. Jewelry and weapons, honey and olive oil, leather and fur - everything is bought and sold in local markets. Today, the ancient Greek polis - is an open-air museum on the outskirts of Sevastopol. The ruins of the ancient city indicate that Hersonissos was a major political and economic center of the Northern Black Sea. There remained a central area, laid back in V century BC. e., and the only one in Russia and the CIS ancient amphitheater, which could hold 3,000 spectators.
Feel the spirit of those times, when there passed the Great Silk Road, it is not difficult: you can wander along the powerful defensive walls and towers, the pillars to touch the ancient basilica, see the huge ancient amphoras. According to legend, in Hersonissos it happened and one of the most important events in Russian history - the baptism of Prince Vladimir. In memory of this at the end of XIX century there was erected Vladimir Cathedral, which operates to this day.
Another major shopping center of the Silk Road was the ancient city of Tanais at the mouth of the Don. See its ruins can have Nedvigovka hamlet, in the largest archaeological open-air museum in Russia.
History of Tanais begins even before the emergence of the Silk Road - a settlement founded in the III century BC. e. to expand trade with local tribes. The central part of the city was surrounded by a fortified wall with defensive towers, it adjoins residential buildings that have survived the best. The museums Tanais kept what was selling ancient city utensils and weapons, tools and jewelry, clothing of the ancient Greeks and Romans, the Scythians and Sarmatians. Finally, you can immerse yourself in the past on the ancient playground - here are invited to participate in the games, invented thousands of years ago.
One of the most important points of the Great Silk Road - Derbent, the oldest and the most southern city in Russia. He has held a strategic position on the road that connects eastern Europe and the Near East, in a narrow passage between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains. Derbent pass covers double wall with towers and gates - all survived to this day. To drive through this area, the merchants had to pay a toll, so a settlement and called Derbent - "narrow, closed the gates."
Already 1,500 years of the city stands the fortress Naryn-Kala, in the territory of which you can see Baths, siege tanks for water and a church carved into the rock. Derbent heart of the old - the oldest in Russia, Juma Mosque, built in the VIII century and is still in effect. And in the old Armenian church today operates a carpet museum, which holds not only the well-known Dagestani carpets, but also other samples of ancient crafts: silver utensils and ornaments, weapons and miniature clay toys.
From Derbent on the Caspian Sea shore caravans with goods fall into the territory, which now occupies the Astrakhan region. There still find artifacts times of the Great Silk Road - for example, coins from different countries on the mountain Big Bogdo. Unusual hill with mysterious caves, which dominates over the steppe, and now remains a place of pilgrimage for the Mongols and Kalmyks. Nearby lies the salt lake Baskunchak. Local salt sent along the Silk Road from the VIII century, and Baskunchaksky healing clays are not inferior mud from the Dead Sea.
Trade routes passed through and the first capital of the Golden Horde - Sarai-Batu. An ancient settlement called Volga Pompeii: excavations have shown that on the bank of the Akhtuba was a huge city with a network of irrigation canals, palaces and mosques, running water and central heating. 5 km from the excavations of the movie was "The Horde" for which recreated the structure of Sarai-Batu: houses, palaces and caravanserais. The shooting ended, and the decorations were - here give tours about the history of the Golden Horde.
But the Great Silk Road - is not just a trade. On his way with the merchants and their goods distributed all kinds of knowledge, including recipes. In 2017 Astrakhan hosted an international festival "Gastronomic traditions of the Great Silk Road". Here prepared meals countries, which connects the trade route - Kazakh beshbarmak Armenian dolma, Greek stews. Russian cuisine was introduced improvisation on the theme of the Olivier salad.
One of the corridors of the Great Silk Road passed through the lands of Volga Bulgaria. In the IX century, the state was an important economic center with its commercial and military fleet - Bulgars conducted trial with foreign merchants of goods up and down the Volga. In the XIV century the capital of Volga Bulgaria became one of the largest cities in Europe.
Now, the ancient Bulgar cost the city of Bolgar, where monuments of the heyday of the missing state preserved: a mosque, mausoleums, minarets, baths ruins, pottery workshops and the Khan's palace. On the territory of the settlement has several interesting museums. In one of them will tell all about Bulgarian culture. Here are exhibited coins, which were paid on the Silk Road, weapons and crafts. In the interactive museum of bread all to do with his hands: to glean, grind one flour, knead the dough to bake bread. The museum is dedicated to writing the chart, which was used by Turkic peoples - from runes to Cyrillic.
Altai region, Biysk
After passing the Volga region, the northern branch of the Silk Road through the South Kazakhstan went to the Altai. In Biysk Local Lore Museum has finds associated with the passage of the trade routes through the territory of the Altai Territory. This amber jewelry, coins Bosporus kingdom and bas-relief depicting Hercules. Local nomads traded with China - evidenced silk fabrics found in the barrow. In the Altai many other archaeological sites: the Imperial barrow, Denisova Cave and Karama - a million years ago, there was an ancient human.
And in Biisk revive culinary traditions - in 2014 here hold competitions on sports pelmeningu for the Cup of the Silk Road. Tournament organizers believe that the dumplings - the only dish that unites the peoples living along the trade routes. Participants compete in modeling and eating dumplings on speed, estimated and skill - in one of the nominations, the winner is the author of a small masterpiece of dough and meat.
To overestimate the importance of the ancient trade route is difficult - on it to disseminate ideas and knowledge, technologies and inventions, cultural traditions and religious teachings. That is why the Great Silk Road was included in the UNESCO World Heritage Site, and the idea of the global transport system still lives. The concept of the "New Silk Road" involves the creation of a network of roads and railways between Europe and Asia. Part of the project has already been implemented - launched the first train from China to Western Europe. New Silk Road passes through Russia.