January 10, 1897 created a vaccine against plague
• January 10, 1897 created a vaccine against plague
The creator of the vaccine, a microbiologist Vladimir Khavkin, did inject himself. Began to come true the prediction of Louis Pasteur: "One of my students will stop the plague."
Pasteur said it is already dying, the last time I came to your institution. He was then shown under a microscope plague pathogen - bacteria, has just opened his pupil Alexander Yersenom.
to launch the third plague pandemic: a terrible disease broke out of a natural focus in the center of Asia and attacked China, Russia and India. India had just returned the youngest student of seniority Pasteur - a Russian citizen Vladimir Aaranovitch Khavkin. However, a Russian citizen he was not even on the shares. Khavkin not visited the Russian Embassy in time to renew his passport. Yes, at home by themselves, and it was not expected.
There, he was listed as Narodnaya Volya, politically unreliable. Three times been under arrest for 8 years was under police surveillance. Without regret, the Russian ambassador gave him a letter of recommendation for the British government, which invited Khavkin to India to experience its cholera vaccine. It is also the first in the world.
This vaccine doubt and patron Khavkin Ilya Mechnikov, and Louis Pasteur himself. However, the result was perfect - 93% guaranteed protection. Believing that Khavkin wizard, the British called it again - this time to fight the plague. Took a staff biologist for the civil service, had promised British citizenship and a laboratory.
In fact, the laboratory in Bombay College of Medicine have identified with unprecedented generosity - the whole room. In the state - one technician and three courier. Experimental animals - rats, which the sailors were caught for pennies on the coming of the European courts. Khavkin simultaneously with several research centers have developed anti-plague vaccine in the much more luxurious conditions. Yet undocumented immigrant all furnished.
He chose a path that others have gone: to make the vaccine poison produced by Y. pestis. So it came out faster than the bacilli pass from generation to generation through the body of thirty rabbits. Yes, rabbits and was not. Bacilli fruit in a meat broth. That they were to be hooked on the surface Khavkin dropped into the broth fat drop. Microbes reaching for greasy spot and grew down like stalactites. Such "stalactites Khavkin" showed that the bacteria are thriving. From time to time the flask was shaken with them, the bacilli were drowned, to the surface again, dripping with fat, for it clung to new germs, and so until the broth is not saturated with toxin.
Before you inject this poison rats, so that they formed an immunity to the plague, the flask was heated to 60 degrees - such pasteurization kills bacteria, keeping them toxin. Trial batch prepared in just three months. Laboratory came down with a nervous breakdown, and Hawking worked 14 hours a day he was in a hurry, around hundreds of people were dying every day. In parallel, he has been reading about the future vaccine lectures to local medical students. Apart from these, no one dared to plant even after a Russian microbiologist 10 January '97 drove under their skin a quadruple dose of plague poison - 10 milliliters of solution.
Incidentally, the Indian students were more easily dare to vaccination because Hawking came from Russia. Measures, which fought the British colonialists with the plague, called the natives hate. Head Bombay garrison General Gatakr acted wrong, and no one was it not the decree. Military plague were brought to hospitals, and their families - in concentration camps, so that a reliable contact with an already healthy patients still undergoing incubation period. Empty homes unfortunate captives poured carbolic acid, and rat plague fleas ran out anywhere, spreading the infection. Hardest suffered Mandvi area inhabited by the poorest. But they did not want to be vaccinated. Indian students in vain repeated to them that the vaccine is made here, and it is not the creator of "Inglisi" and "Russia". And this "Rus" is the same persecuted because he was a Jew, and openly says that the British are just as bad for the Indians, as the king's authority - to his people. For the poor from the slums Mandvi were all white on one person. Encourage them to only a powerful man could to vaccination, which they absolutely trust. And a leader is found. He went on Khavkin.
It was the Aga Khan III of, the master of the invisible empire of the Ismailis, the 48th imam of the great sects directing the Muslim community in anticipation of the phenomenon of the messiah Mahdi. He was then barely 20, but this young man knew five languages and was well versed in the sciences, so that he could assess the possibility of a vaccine for articles in medical periodicals. He just got married, and the wedding of his scattered from Mozambique to Indonesia subjects presented him with the gold coins, which equaled the total weight of the weight of the 48 th Imam. Gold enough, but the British methods of fighting the plague of his guards. If the colonists be driven into the coffin of all the inhabitants of the quarter Mandvi, among which was full of Ismaili and smash to pieces for their home, as it was done in Karachi, where is the precious metal at the next weigh-in 5 years?
In addition, the Aga Khan harbored political ambitions. For his career, a feat needed. And he made it. At the request of the omnipotent Imam Khavkin several times made him vaccinated in front of crowds of Ismaili. Laboratory Khavkin moved from the little room at the luxury villa Aga Khan, and the staff was expanded by means of the community. It worked.
Immediately 11,000 Ismailis vaccinated against plague. Now the disease, and cursed her fighters bypassed their house party. Seeing that the Aga Khan "for the people", Ismaili neighbors began to move to Islam, joined the ranks of the Shiite sect. There is already a Hindu leaders sensed the competition and tried to persuade his fellow vaccinated. A Khavkin announced mahatma. The Aga Khan has received from this scientific experiment, all he wanted. Queen Victoria showered him with awards and introduced in the Indian government. In western India, inhabited mostly by Muslims, proteges of the Aga Khan has grown elite of the future of an independent Pakistan. When this state has acquired sovereignty, the Aga Khan again weighed. But now the other scales were thrown not gold, and diamonds. 95 kilograms of diamonds. Hawking in 1897 realized with whom he was dealing. He had to Aga Khan his interest. Vladimir Aaranovitch offered Imam only project of liberation of the Jews from the power of other nations. According to his plan, the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II - Palestine belonged to the then Ottoman Empire - allowed the Jews to buy land around Jerusalem. Formed compact Jewish autonomy, which is out of gratitude will support the power of the Sultan in the volatile Arab world.
Curiously, the head of the Ismaili really discussed this plan with Abdul-Hamid. He flatly refused. Aga Khan III lived another 60 years, and more than once that this was the toughest of all the last ruler of the Ottoman Empire errors.
Vladimir Aaranovitch Khavkin (1860-1930) on the rise of his career, in 1896. He had just won a victory over cholera in India, personally instilling 42 thousand people. Queen Victoria had already included it in the list of award dedicated to her nearest birthday: Khavkin be granted British citizenship and the title of Chevalier of the Order of the Indian Empire.
Winter 1896-1897 year. Bombay, outdoor crematorium - the so-called burial ghata where Hindu continuously burned body of hundreds of victims of the plague. The body is placed in the logs, stacked between the four steel rods. After combustion ash thrown into the sea. Left stretcher just delivered the body of another victim.
1897, Karachi, Western India (now Pakistan). Demolition of houses who died from the plague. Real sanitary and epidemiological results this defeat did not give, because the plague infection does not nest in the house, its carriers - the animals, especially rodents. But it looked impressive, and his superiors had the feeling that "the situation is under control" and the "measures taken".
at the top left - Major General William Forbes Gatakr (1843-1906), chief of the garrison, and the head of the Bombay Plague Committee established March 5, 1897. Was invested with dictatorial powers, he developed a rigorous activity. Gatakr believed that the plague can be overcome without the help of doctors, some organizational measures. Every day, he personally went around Bombay, withdrawing plague victims to isolate them in the hospital. Close the patients were brought in special camps (where they were languishing in the heat and hunger), their home is poured carbolic acid for disinfection. Cruel senseless actions have caused civil disobedience, armed rebellion and strike in the Bombay dock. June 30, 1897 under the pretext of the general was transferred to another position higher. During the Anglo-Boer War, he commanded a division, which is in the battle was shamefully defeated at Stromberg. Top right - the spiritual leader of the Ismailis, the 48th Imam of the community of Aga Khan III (1877-1957) in 1898, while traveling in Europe. He played a key role in the mass vaccination, urging residents of Bombay trust Hawking and his assistants. The merits of the Aga Khan III in the fight against hunger and plague appreciated by Queen Victoria; he was given an audience, and granted the title of Knight Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire. One of the richest and most influential people in the world, the actual founder of Pakistan as an independent state of West Indian Muslims in 1937, the chairman of "world government" - the League of Nations.
Bottom left - Vladimir Khavkin vaccinates children against cholera. Picture taken at the beginning of 1896 in Bengal, where Hawking contracted malaria.
Bottom right - Hawking, the director of the Research Laboratory of the plague (in 1925 this research institution is called Khavkin Institute) in late 1902 or early 1903. His staff: seconded to the laboratory British military doctors, Indian doctors and administrators.
Hawking sits with a white pith helmet in his left hand behind his back to third on the left is Superintendent - officer in charge of the laboratory to the armed forces - Major William Barney Bannerman (1859-1924). He is ready to play the role of Judas. Because of the incompetence of Bannerman he could not trust any manipulation complicated injection. Bannerman strongly intrigued against Khavkin. Using a medical error during vaccination in Punjab, 30 October 1902 (cork from the bottle with the vaccine fell to the ground, and 19 people died of tetanus), he has achieved the removal of the director of the laboratory manual and the actual expulsion Khavkin from India for several years.
Photo: Dr. Maitland Gibson (seated on the right hand of Khavkin).
The bottom two photos are in the collections of Israel, Jerusalem National Library.