It looked like the medieval center of Moscow
Walking through the center of Moscow, it is interesting to reflect on the fact that it was at a particular location in the Middle Ages. And if you know the true history of a particular area or street and imagine who and how he lived here several centuries ago, the names of regions and the whole view of perceived quite differently. And look at the Moscow center different eyes ...
Arbat was impregnable wall
The name of the district, located in its streets (with the prefix "New" and "Old"), as well as the eponymous square went from a Turkic word "bullock cart" (a cart) or from the Arabic "orb" (suburbs). Indeed, earlier it was the border of the city. At the end of the XVI century around the rapidly expanding Moscow tenements built a fortress wall, built of white stone, which served as the third defensive ring and was called "The Wall of the White City." It was very high, the lower part was a slope, and the upper lip was because her guns to shoot the enemy would have been problematic. Loopholes with guns pointing down, and thus, the arrows could immediately strike anyone who is close to the foot of the wall. White wall had 15 gates, which are carefully guarded.
In the Arbat gate of the White City in the early XVII century. Reconstruction VA Ryabov.
In the second half of the XVIII century, when the need for such protection is no longer the city historically, Catherine II ordered to demolish the defensive wall and build in their place avenues by which citizens could walk. But the gates of them for a long time remained standing, and it looked funny. As a result, and due to dilapidation was removed, but the names were (Arbat, Pokrovsky Sretensky and so on). Arbat Gates later gave the name of the square, the street and even the region. Initially, the area was inhabited by artisans and archers, but after the VIII century, it began to build the house to know, and the area has become prestigious.
The Basmanny do elite bread
In Basmannaya Sloboda, located to the northwest of the German, lived and worked in the palace bakers who made delicious bread called "Basman". It was served to the royal table, and handed out to employees of the sovereign, and all the ambassadors who are supposed to state-owned contentment. Each Basman baking put a special stamp. Tatars such printing (only applied to the skin or metal) called "Basma" - hence the name of the loaves. And similarly it was called and the area.
Old Basmannaya street before the revolution. /Foto:pastvu.com
By the way, there is a version that the word "Basman" has gone and the name of the scale - "steelyard". This is due to the fact that all of the Basmanny bread weighed the same.
At the end of the XVII century began to settle here and officers of Peter's regiments, and a hundred years later the area became know to settle in the city. By the way, in what is now the Basmanny district in ancient times was located still many smaller settlements - Blinnikov, archers Syromyatnikov etc...
Marsh as a place of punishment and festivals
In ancient times there was a boggy meadow. Later, the locals broke in the place of swamps princely and monastery gardens, orchards, and nearby there was a big market. Local trade, this area was until the beginning of the revolution. But the name associated with the former here once marshes, preserved until now.
This typical Moscow area medieval times seen the artist Apollinaris Vasnetsov.
In XV-XVII centuries. this site regularly held national holiday festivities, which were invariably accompanied by fisticuffs.
Pugacheva driven to his execution. / Hood. T. Nazarenko
Also on the Bolotnaya square authorities carried out the public punishment of criminals and executions. The last and perhaps the most famous penalty in the Swamp was quartering Pugachev in 1775. This event was attended by thousands of citizens. Gawker even sitting on the roofs of buildings.
In the Tver mined clay and lived clowns
Once on the site, located outside Moscow, it was a quarry, which was mined clay. Pits and mines were called "Glinische". Around the XIV century this craft gave its name to the surrounding areas and the occurred settlement, and three hundred years later - and the temple, which was called the Church of St. Alexis the Metropolitan of that Glinische.
In 1930 the church was demolished and Glinischevsky lane was renamed the street Nemirovich-Danchenko, but in 1993 returned to its old name.
Next to this was a road lane in the town of Dmitrov. At the end of the XIII century along it began to build settlement that populated the artisans of different professions, as well as clowns. The vast majority of its inhabitants were immigrants from Dmitrov edges. Hence the name - Dmitrovskaya settlement.
B. Dmitrovka in this century. /Foto:mosprogulka.ru
Starting from the XVI century in these regions, closer to the Kremlin in Moscow, began to settle the aristocracy, and the authorities ordered craftsmen to move away. They moved a little to the north, but on the same road, and the new settlement was named Small Dmitrovskaya. At the end of the XVII century the inhabitants moved further north, and suburb began to call "New". Thus, in the middle of the XVIII century there were three of the same name of the street - Big and Small Dmitrovka and Novoslobodskaya.
The earth wall and moat planted apple trees
At the end of the XVI century on this place there was a fourth ring of Moscow's fortifications. He was made because of the threat of an attack on the town of Khan of the Crimean Horde. New, very modern by the standards of the wall ran around there, where now the Garden Ring. Muscovites called it "Skorodomom" - probably because it was built very quickly.
Fortunately, the enemies-Crimeans to the wall and did not come down, but in 1611-m erected wooden towers and walls of burned Polish-Lithuanian troops.
In the first half of the XVII century on the site of the burnt wall was erected as a strengthening earthen wall, along which ran on both sides of the ditches. Strengthening considered more impregnable than the defensive wall. Scorodite gradually became known as an earthen rampart and the same name was given to the area, the consolidation between this and the wall of the White City.
It housed the settlement archers. For a while, earth wall was and the customs border of the city.
The earth wall today. Photo: photo-moskva.ru
At the beginning of the last century sryli shaft unnecessary. In its place, the residents built the streets and defeated the gardens. Hence the name of several adjacent streets with prefixes "Garden".
Ryad as a symbol of abundance
Moscow for centuries was famous for its shopping arcade. Okhotny among them was one of the most modest. As is clear from the name, it sold game, mined on the hunt.
Apollinaris Vasnetsov. Red Square in the second half of the XVII century. In the XVII century Okhotny Ryad was located there, where now stands the Museum of History, and in the next century food stores, including hunting, suffered for Neglinka (now the site of Manege Square to the Theater).
A Vasnetsov. Cannon-casting yard on Neglinnaya River.
Gradually all the local residents began to call the ranks willingly, because here began to sell the most valuable commodities. The range was very wide, and the trade went both retail and wholesale. By the XIX century Okhotny Ryad became associated in the townspeople and visitors with an abundance of well-fed and life in Moscow. Until the onset of the revolution, he was a symbol of stability, giving rise to a lot of folk proverbs.