Magic, drugs and Intimacy: How did the traditional way of "witch on a broomstick"
• Magic, drugs and Intimacy: How did the traditional way of "witch on a broomstick,"
Until the twentieth century witch is almost always portrayed as a naked beautiful girls. To date, the traditional image has changed dramatically. Now, sorceress - is an old woman in a black robe and pointed hat. Times have changed, but remained the main and most unusual attribute of the sorceress - a broom to fly.
Witches come on the Sabbath. Luis Ricardo Falera, 1878
For a long time remained a pressing question about why the witch is flying on broomsticks. Some believe that the broom performed designation of women's economic, while others see it as a phallic symbol. For stiff patriarchal society of the Middle Ages this fact was enough to hate witches.
In those years in Europe, there were still remnants of ancient pagan rituals. So, in the spring to get a good harvest, a farmer went out to the fields where dancing around poles with pitchforks and brooms and leaping up to the songs. This can be compared with the description in the book of the Sabbath Reginald Scott 1584:
"I never ceased to dance on these magical witch meetings. They sang, whirled with brooms in hand, rode through the trees and transported over long distances. "
If you combine the pagan traditions, brooms, phallic symbols of fertility, bouncing, you will get all the elements necessary for the myth of flying witches.
The flight to the witch coven. Luis Ricardo Falera 1880.
Coven. Francisco Goya, 1819-1823 gg.
At the beginning of XVII century there are the first reports of witches mass using "flying ointment" to fly on a broomstick. They were made of hallucinogenic substances, common in Europe, such as ergot contained in contaminated grains, henbane, belladonna, mandrake. Occultist Johann Weyer in the book "On the deceptions of demons" (Praestigiis Daemonum) 1563, informs that all the ingredients for the "flying ointments" had every witch.
woodcut depicting witches coven. Hans Baldung, 1510
The main thing is not to poison to death to make an Elixir. Another, more secure way to deliver hallucinogen the body - through the mucous membranes. From the records of the XV century Giordano de Bergamo:
"Vulgar imagine, but witches admit that on certain days or nights they process your pole or broom ointment and moved her to the designated place. Also, they smear themselves under the arms and in other hairy places. "
The French witch is ready to fly, spreading themselves with ointment. Illustration of the early XVII century.
In 1477, Antoine Rose, known as the Savoy witch, confessed under torture that communicate with the devil. According to her, it was a dark man with a hoarse voice, whose name was Robin. The woman kissed his feet as a sign of respect, renounced God and the Christian faith. Instead, he put her mark on the little finger of his left hand, gave a stick 0, 5 meters long, and a pot of yellow witchcraft ointment.
Wanting to get to the coven, Antoine Rose greased stick drug, sat on horseback and shouted, "In the name of the devil! Fly and go ", and she immediately transfers it to the collection point. There are witches and warlocks dancing, singing and copulating.
The flight of the Sabbath. Albert Joseph Penot, 1910
The flight of witches. Francisco Goya, 1707-1798.
Nowadays, people experienced the recipe medieval potions (deadly nightshade, henbane, aconite and hemlock on the basis of animal fat), described it this way:
"Every part of my body, it seemed, was going to leave me, and I was gripped by the fear that I'm falling apart. At the same time I felt an intoxicating sensation of flight. I grew up to the clouds, the sky fell. Herds of animals, falling leaves, fluttering streamers river, steam, molten metal - all swirled together. "
Four Witches. Albrecht Durer, 1497
For what use is cumbersome sorceress broom, if you could do a little stick? The secret is simple. Witches under torture, confessed that supposedly knitted their guns for flights from bundles of the "right" of plants, and then cooked in butter. Suffice it to warm up the broom, and she is ready to use.
In the Middle Ages all this was seen as an attempt to sell themselves to the devil. Many women were tortured and killed for having dared to explore such forms of personal freedom. Fortunately, those days are gone, but the echoes of rites can still be found in literature and cinema. A good example is the famous flight over Moscow Margarita by Mikhail Bulgakov's novel "Master and Margarita".
flying scene on the Sabbath in the novel "The Master and Margarita".